Die Bibliotheken von Karl Marx und Friedrich Engels: annotiertes Verzeichnis des ermittelten Bestandes [The Libraries of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: Annotated Index to Verified Holdings]. Ed. Hans-Peter Harstick, Richard Sperl, and Hanno Strauß. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1999. 738 p. ill. 25 cm. (Gesamtausgabe [MEGA] / Karl Marx; Friedrich Engels: Abt. 4. Exzerpte, Notizen, Marginalien, 32; Vorauspublikation). ISBN 3-05-003440-8: DM 298.00 [01-1-028]
The history of Marx's and Engels' private libraries is one of loss, recovery, and the many unfinished attempts that have been made to reconstruct the two collections. The Annotated Index (AI) under review here lists books, brochures, and periodicals once owned by the two men that later were found in more than 20 locations within and outside Germany.
In 1844, already as a student, Marx began recording his acquisitions in notebooks. Thirty-one of these early possessions are listed in the AI. In 1849 he gave 800 volumes for safekeeping to his Cologne friend Roland Daniels, whose 1851 inventory (the so-called Daniels list) identifies nearly 400 individual titles. Separated from his private library for 12 years, Marx relied on the Library of the British Museum. The record of his many years of reading is stored in some 250 notebooks, the listing of which in the AI has not progressed very far.
In the margins of his personal copies (although not in the British Museum materials!) Marx carried on a heated dialogue with the written texts, using praise, blame, ridicule, wit, and dismissal of opposing arguments in his homegrown marking system of six different colors of pencil. Engels on the other hand was a more disciplined reader, writing marginal notes in a steady hand. (The editors of the AI have for good reason favored Marx's "wild" marginalia for inclusion in their illustrations to the volume.) And because Marx and Engels often exchanged books, one often encounters the one responding to the other's marginal comments.
The breadth and content of Engels' early book collection is not well documented. The AI lists only a handful of the numerous literary works that Engels drew upon in his early writings. (During his great Ireland project, for example, Engels compiled a bibliographic index with over 150 titles and 15 notebooks of excerpts.) More titles are sure to be included in the still outstanding edition of his unpublished works.
Compared to the libraries of other 19th-century scholars, Marx's and Engels' are rather modest. For research Marx relied on the collections of the British Museum, Engels on libraries in Manchester and London. Engels acquired about half of Marx's library after the latter's death in 1883. The other half went to Marx's daughters Eleanor (Marx) Tussy in London and Laura (Marx) Lafargue in Paris and to other close friends and relations. Engels integrated his portion of Marx's library into his own and sought to ensure that the entire collection would stay together after his death. Neuhaus and Harstick, in their introducation to the AI, estimate that this library contained "at least 2,100 titles in 3,200 volumes" (p. 23), but it is not clear if they are referring to Engels' combined post-1883 library or the pre-1883 collections.
When this library was later transferred to Berlin (with no inventory list), the materials were integrated into the 4,000-volume library of the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) [Social Democratic Party of Germany], against the donor's wishes. A 1901 library catalog lists around 8,000 items (not including Russian-language books). A typewritten catalog tracked down in 1987 has proven indispensible in identifying titles that had once been in Marx's and Engels' possession.
In the latter 1920s Boris I. Nikolaevskii (MEGA co-planner with David B. Riazanov) went through the library's 16,000 volumes and in 1929 published a catalog that identified no fewer than 1,130 relevant titles. After the Stalin era his work was recognized as crucial for locating Marx-Engels books worldwide. Banned in 1933, the SPD library in 1934 was moved to the warehouse of the Secret Prussian State Archives in Dahlem. In 1936, over the archivists' objections, the Prussian State Library in Berlin took 6,700 titles. Four years later the Institute for State Research of the Berlin University received 3,618 titles and the State Scientific-Statistical Seminar 1,300 titles. In November 1945 the American authorities returned some 4,000 items from Dahlem to the SPD archive.
After the founding of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) this collection was combined with the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (SED) [Socialist Unity Party of Germany] Central Committee's library to form the basis of the library of the Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute in Berlin. In 1946 the staff of the Moscow Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute removed some 1,000 books of Marx-Engels provenance from the SPD Library. As well, rare books and books not available in Moscow were taken from the Prussian State Library and sent to Moscow as war booty.
Bruno Kaiser, the director of the Library of the Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute, and his co-worker Inge Werchan received the remainder of the Dahlem collection in the early 1950s and took up the search for other books owned by Marx and Engels. In 1967 Wachan published a well-illustrated catalog of the results of their search: Ex libris Karl Marx und Friedrich Engels: Schicksal und Verzeichnis einer Bibliothek (Berlin, 1967). Here for the first time the Daniels list was reprinted as an appendix. Except for a very few titles in Amsterdam and at the Karl Marx House in Trier, Werchan does not give locations of the books. For good reason, she and Kaiser had to keep silent about the fact that 438 of the 504 books rediscovered between 1953 and 1961 had been given up to the Moscow Institute for Marxism-Leninism by decision of the SED Central Committee.
In the 1970s and 1980s Werchan uncovered a further 300 titles. After the MEGA Commission decided to include marginalia along with excerpts and notes in the fourth section of the work, the party institutes in Berlin and Moscow, the IISG in Amsterdam, and the Karl-Marx-Haus in Trier, in a coordinated effort, expanded the search to locations outside Berlin and the GDR. By 1995, the number of identified copies had increased to about 1,400. By the time the Annotated Index went to print, 50 more had been found, so that the reconstructed inventory contains 1,450 titles in some 2,100 volumes (a rough figure, at best, because it includes small publications, such as two-to-eight-page pamphlets and numerous offprints from journals and newspapers).
It is likely that more books from Marx's or Engels' ownership were left behind in England, but apparently no further reseach has been undertaken in this regard. For example, one of Marx's notebooks from the early 1860s, auctioned in May 2000 at Sotheby's, contains his handwritten notes on Malthus' Principles of Population and William Godwin's Political Justice, as well as excerpts from Marx's copy of T. J. Dunning's Trades' Unions and Strikes, all found in Daniels but not in the AI.
This edition of the AI lists at least 392 titles not positively identified as having been owned by Marx or Engels, implying that the AI might be more appropriately considered a "preliminary annotated index" and not a "prepublication." It is not a typical catalog of a private library, but rather a location tool and preliminary device for the editors.
The author index is not very helpful, as it does not include the title numbers with the entry. The organization of the indexed titles by subject and discipline is on the contrary very useful. The editors have maintained the pre-1990 habit of treating Marx and Engels as Siamese twins. Only after looking at the catalog entry does the reader find out whether a work belonged to Marx or to Engels. Smaller errors can be easily overlooked, although it is a puzzle why the editors spell Machiavelli as "Macchiavelli," when the rest of the literary and bibliographic world prefers the former. [hm/ga]
Deutschsprachige Verlagsalmanache des 20. Jahrhunderts: eine Bibliographie; mit einer Auswahl von Sortimenter-Almanachen [German Publishers' Almanacs in the 20th Century: A Bibliography, with a Selection of Booksellers' Almanacs]. Ulrike Erber-Bader. Marbach: Deutsche Schillergesellschaft. 21 cm. (Verzeichnisse, Berichte, Informationen, 26). ISBN 3-933679-52-4: DM 90.00 [01-1-029]
Bd. 1. A-M, Nr. 1-1493. 2001. 310 p. ill.
Bd. 2. N-Z, Nr. 1494-2538, Index. 2001. 293 p. ill.
The first version of this bibliography was published in 1987, in the Archiv für Geschichte des Buchwesens [Archive for the History of the Book], no. 29 (p. 151-233). The present two-volume work, considerably expanded in scope and time coverage, contains over 2,500 titles grouped by publisher. A title index, an index of literary and book people, and a chronological index of almanac production in the 20th century enhance its value as a reference tool. A brief foreword and a selective list of secondary literature give suggestions for further study. The two volumes, as is typical for publications of the German Schiller Society, are attractively designed and richly illustrated.
The author has personally examined the works included in her bibliography, no small achievement considering that many of them are not easily accessible. Covered are mainly publishers' almanacs that were intended to be used for advertising purposes, and that include a publishing schedule, excerpts from house authors' books or their original contributions, and a list of the firm's publications. This work is of indisputable value for historians of literature and publishing and for collectors. It could have been enhanced with information on where the indexed titles could be found. Understandably, the entries are not annotated. Ulrike Erber-Bader's twentieth century ends in 1999; titles for the year 2000 are not included. [ab/ga]
Lexikon deutscher Verlage von A-Z: 1071 Verlage und 2800 Verlagssignete vom Anfang der Buchdruckerkunst bis 1945: Adressen, Daten, Fakten, Namen [Dictionary of German Publishers from A to Z: 1,071 Publishers and 2,800 Publishers' Marks from the Beginning of Printing to 1945; Addresses, Dates, Facts, Names]. Reinhard Würffel. Berlin: Verlag Grotesk, 2000. 1,054 p. ill. 25 cm. ISBN 3-9803147-1-5: DM 158.00 [01-1-030]
The Lexikon deutscher Verlage von A-Z, apparently the second publication from the Grotesk firm, nicely complements the Dokumentation deutschsprachiger Verlage (München, 1995), familiarly known as "Vinz/Olzog" (see RREA 2:60). The latter features histories of German publishers still active today, while the Lexikon uses broader criteria for inclusion. It contains histories of German publishers founded between 1545 and 1945, with emphasis on those established in the 19th and the first half of the 20th century and on still existing publishers. Over 1,000 publishers are covered, and their histories are detailed throughout their existence up to the year 1999. No selection criteria are mentioned; gaps in the list are therefore to be expected. Each entry includes the name of the publisher (at the time the firm was established), place and year of establishment, as well as year of closing, if applicable. The text contains the names of founders, owners, changes in publisher's name and/or place, focus of published works, famous works, series and periodicals published, and ownership and address of still existing publishers. The author also put much effort into identifying and reproducing publishers' marks. The indexes are incomplete and should be improved. Nonetheless, there is currently no comparable reference work of this type. [sh/ba]
Buchclub 65: Bibliographie der Veröffentlichungen der Buchgemeinschaft der DDR; 1965-1990 [Book Club 65: Bibliography of the Publications of the Book Society of the German Democratic Republic, 1965-1990]. Heinz Gittig. Berlin: Gittig, 2000. 190 p. 22 cm. ISBN 3-8311-0417-4: DM 75.00 (Libri Books on Demand, Gutenbergring 53, D-22848 Norderstedt, fax [49 40] 5343 3584) [01-2-252]
Bibliographies of book-club publications can serve as contributions to the history of publishing, bibliophily, the sociology of literature, and research into reading. This one, as a record of the GDR's only book club, also offers insights into the East German regime's policy regarding literature. The author's concise but adequately detailed introduction recounts the history of Buchclub 65, which lasted until 1990, and whose distribution derived almost exclusively from five GDR publishers: Aufbau-Verlag, Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Rütten & Loening, Verlag Volk und Welt / Kultur und Fortschritt, and Verlag Neues Leben. It also offers information on distribution, marketing, and prizes, as well as statistics on printing, prices, and membership. The 1,205 consecutively numbered titles are arranged by year of release and subarranged by series, with full bibliographic data, as well as information about the original (non-book-club) publication. There are also five indexes, four of various classes of bibliographically significant persons and one of publishing companies. Indexes by language, country of origin, and broad subject category would have been useful as well. [sh/gw]
Vittorio Klostermann Frankfurt am Main 1930-2000: Verlagsgeschichte und Bibliographie [Vittorio Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main, 1930-2000: History of the Publishing House and Bibliography]. Ed. Vittorio E. Klostermann, with Siegfried Blasche. Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann, 2000. 387 p. ill. 23 cm. ISBN 3-465-03106-7: DM 48.00 [01-2-253]
The Klostermann publishing house, founded in 1930 by Vittorio Klostermann, celebrated its 70-year anniversary in the year 2000. It marked its long and illustrious history by releasing a bibliography (similar to the one published in 1980 on its 50-year anniversary) with a complete listing of all of the monographs, series, and annuals that it has published over the years. Inexplicably, journals are not included.
The volume is edited by the current owner of the publishing house and younger son of the founder, Eckard Klostermann (now known as Vittorio E. Klostermann). However, not he, but an outside observer, Siegfried Blasche, has provided the introductory article that gives a historical overview of the publishing house and another about its philosophical approach. Not surprisingly, much of the introduction dwells on Martin Heidegger, the most prominent author published by Klostermann. Other articles deal with areas of scholarship to which the publishing house has given special emphasis: law, Romance languages and literature, German literature and literary scholarship, and librarianship and bibliography (including such noted authors as Eppelsheimer and Köttelwesch). In his brief postscript, Klostermann reiterates his skepticism with regard to doomsayers who predict the demise of printed books. He may be right about the future of monographs, but how long Klostermann will continue the print publication of specialized cumulative annual bibliographies, at least one of which now appears in both print and CD-ROM versions, remains to be seen. [sh/akb]
VdB-Bibliographie: Geschichte und Verzeichnis der nachweisbaren Titel des "Volksverband der Bücherfreunde" und der "Weltgeistbücherei" [VdB Bibliography: A History and Catalog of the Authenticable Titles of the "People's Association of Friends of the Book" and the "Secular Library"]. Eberhard and Heribert Amtmann. Heidelberg: Amtmann, 1999. 218 p. ill. 22 cm. ISBN: 3-9806182-0-X: DM 148.00 (E. Amtmann, Dossenheimer Weg 7, D-69121 Heidelberg) [01-2-256]
While the activities of reading clubs of the German workers movement are relatively well-studied, their comparable more bourgeois counterparts have scarcely been noted. Now, the Volksverband der Bücherfreunde, founded in 1919 and with 750,000 members the largest book club of the Weimar Republic period, has been investigated for the first time. A brief description of the club, which lasted into the 1960s, is followed by information about 1,400 club offerings. Included as well are the publications of the Weltgeistbücherei, a related line that was sold in bookstores as well as to club members. The title entries are well done, and include information about physical details of the books, most of which were personally inspected by the authors. Date information is not available for every title, and the authors note that additional titles may eventually become known. The publishing program of the Volksverband der Bücherfreunde included literature, original graphic works, and popular nonfiction, and even some first editions of works by major authors such as Lion Feuchtwanger and Alfred Döblin. This bibliography represents a useful contribution to scholarship on the sociology of literature and on the history of the book and publishing. [ab/baw]
Guide Cartier des prix et concours littéraires [The Cartier Guide to Writing Contests and Prizes]. Bertrand Labes. Paris: Cherche Midi, 1999. 426 p. 23 cm. (Collection guides). Previous title: Guide Montblanc des prix et concours littéraires. ISBN 2-86274-677-0: FF 143.00
Finding information on literary prizes is much facilitated with the publication of such resources as the Guide Cartier 2000 des prix et concours littéraires. This third edition (previously the Guide Montblanc) of prizes and literary competitions contains listings for over 1,850 awards given to writers in French; three-quarters of the awards are from France. Labes divides the entries into three categories: prizes (given to commercially published works), contests (awarded to manuscripts or books published by their authors), and journalism (for published literary essays). Each category is arranged alphabetically by the first significant word in the name of the prize, so that Grand prix des lectrices de ... is under L, the "meilleurs" are under M, and eponymous prizes are alphabetical by forename (e. g., Louis Marin under L). The academies and all the prizes that they award are listed first. There are four indexes: title of the award, jurors' names, thematic, and amount of award (for the latter three, references are to the entry number of the prize, not the page number). In the very interesting introduction, Labes gives a general overview of the state of the literary prize in France. He compares awards and award amounts with past years, reflects on prizes that have disappeared, and announces new entries.
For each entry, the name of the institution giving the prize is listed, along with contact information and the current amount of the award. The genre is listed along with qualification criteria. It would have been helpful if acronyms were spelled out for those who do not know that the AEN is the Association des anciens élèves de l'École navale, for example. Information not consistently given, but useful when it appears, includes the date the prize was created, the names of the jury members, and when and where the award is given. For certain of the better-known prizes a longer description and history are given, as well as names of past prize-winners (up through 1998); however, the title of the prize-winning work is not. For others, Labes supplies short notes describing changes in the award or evaluating the association and/or prize: "an always effective association, and a prize that is no less so" is said of the Prix André Seveyrat de Poésie. It is unfortunate that he fails to list web addresses. The Académie Goncourt, for example, has an excellent and informative site (with an up-to-date list of winners) at <http://www.academie-goncourt.fr/>.
Littérature is obviously taken in its broadest sense, meaning writing rather than strictly belles lettres and poetry. However, such entities as the Prix Vautrin Lud, an international geography award given to a scientist who has significantly advanced the field, seem out of scope. Inclusiveness is good on the whole, since it allows a gathering of scholarly works, serious literature and genres often considered "popular." Many of the prize givers do not make such distinctions, preferring to make awards based on the quality of writing about a subject in any form. The subject index is then all the more useful as a means of focusing research on a specific genre or format, such as the novel.
There is no other up-to-date collection comparable to the Guide. Still useful (especially for literature in English) is Bufkin's Foreign Literary Prizes (Bowker, 1980), which is valuable for its more strictly literary scope and for the fact that it lists award winners (and the award-winning works) from the earliest award on for all of the prizes mentioned in the book. With less-informative and briefer entries, Awards, Honors & Prizes (Gale, 19th ed., 2001) covers France fairly well, listing 1,700 prizes in all fields. While it omits many of the smaller prizes in the Guide Cartier, it does contain some prizes that the Labes fails to mention, ranging from prizes given to an architect for writing, to the prizes awarded by the Paris-based Association des écrivains de langue française (which should have been in the Labes).
The Guide Cartier is highly useful to anyone seeking information about writing prizes awarded in France, and the clear and concise format is helpful. The information provided about jury members, as well as the occasional commentaries are of added value.
Sarah Wenzel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
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