DG - Europe
Biographisches Lexikon zur Geschichte der demokratischen und liberalen Bewegungen in Mitteleuropa [Biographical Lexicon of the History of Democratic and Liberal Movements in Central Europe]. Ed. Helmut Reinalter. Frankfurt am Main: Lang. 22 cm. (Schriftenreihe der Internationalen Forschungsstelle “Demokratische Bewegungen in Mitteleuropa 1770-1850”, …).
Vol. 2, Pt. 2. Österreich, Schweiz [Austria, Switzerland]. 2011. xvi, 227 p. (..., 43). ISBN 978-3-631-51272-2: EUR 46.80 [13-1]
This is the concluding volume of a biographical dictionary which the Innsbruck Research Center “Democratic Movements in Central Europe, 1770-1850” has been working on for over two decades. Volume 1, covering the years 1770-1800, appeared in 1992 (see RREA 9:323) and contains biographies of 317 persons from Germany, Austria and Switzerland who were politically active in liberal and democratic movements. Published in 2005, volume 2, part 1 (see RREA 11:24) covers 191 persons from Germany for the period 1815-1848/49.
This final volume contains biographies for an additional 191 persons from Austria, Bohemia and Moravia, Hungary, and Switzerland. The signed articles average twoand- one-half columns in length and contain name, birth and death dates, genealogical information, a biographical section, and a section with selected works and secondary literature. The biographical sections give special emphasis to each person’s contributions to the development of democracy, constitutional government, and the rule of law. As in the earlier volumes, it is less the “great” names that are of interest and more the activities of the lesser-known actors, especially those from Bohemia, Moravia, and Hungary. But also many well-known persons, such as Nikolaus Lenau or Gottfried Keller, who are mainly known for their literary activities, are seen in a new light with this thematic approach.
In 2002 as part of the Austrian university reform laws, the Center, which until then was part of the University of Innsbruck, was dissolved and its research continued by other groups. Most likely as a result of this event, a planned comprehensive index volume has been cancelled, with the unfortunate result that the researcher has to check several different indexes to locate one person among the over 700 names included. The last published volume of the entire project, the Handbuch zur Geschichte der demokratischen Bewegungen in Zentraleuropa, has been scheduled to appear in late 2012 and is the final series publication under the Center’s name. [sh/jc]
Friedrich II. von Preußen: ein kulturgeschichtliches und bebildertes Panorama von A-Z [Frederick the Second of Prussia: A Cultural History and Illustrated Panorama from A to Z]. Norbert Leithold. Frankfurt am Main: Eichborn, 2011. 428 p. ill. 22 cm. (Die andere Bibliothek, 322). ISBN 978-3-8218-6240-8: EUR 32 [12-2]
During the decade prior to the 300th anniversary of the birth of Frederick the Great (24 January 1712), historian Norbert Leithold carried out extensive research on Frederick using sources in Potsdam and Weimar and published two other titles on Frederick in 2005 and 2006. For the work under review he was able to capitalize on only recently discovered secret diplomatic correspondence between Frederick and Count Eustach von Goertz (1737-1821). This collection is also available online as Die Schatullrechnungen Friedrichs des Großen [The Casket-Papers of Frederick the Great], at http://quellen. perspectivia.net/bestaende/spsg-schatullrechnungen.
Leithold’s history, published in the respected and well-received series Die andere Bibliothek [The Other Library] is arranged alphabetically by heading, from Abenteuer [Adventure] to Zeitungen [Newspapers]. By picking and choosing subject entries and their articles, each reader can create a personalized, unique picture of this era. Almost every article is linked to one or more other articles in the book. The entries are grouped around several distinct subjects: diplomatic and military questions, people and families around Frederick, court protocol and administration, the prince’s intellectual and scientific interests, and a few other areas such as administration, social groups, jurisprudence, and economics. The subject of religion has largely been excluded; likewise missing is any treatment of Frederick’s famous sense of humor (which earned him the moniker Der Alte Fritz [Old Fritz]). Within the section on Frederick’s scholarly and intellectual interests is a discussion of his book collections as a representation of his intellectual interests. He maintained five virtually identically furbished libraries in five palaces: Charlottenburg, Sanssouci, the Potsdam and Breslau City Castles, and the New Palace (Neuer Palais). The collections in Sanssouci and the Neuer Palais, as well as some materials from Charlottenburg, survive and are housed in Charlottenburg.
The panorama’s organization is convenient for paging and browsing, but the work is not a factual dictionary in the true sense. The breadth of subjects covered is not adequate for that purpose. The 11-page bibliography lists 280 sources, including some from the Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz [Secret State Archive of Prussian Cultural Property]. All in all, this work displays all the advantages of the series Die andere Bibliothek: it is a work that is aesthetically pleasing, with up-to-date illustrations and reading material. The reader finds here an interesting, multifaceted, and positive portrait of Frederick the Great. [wh/ga]
Berlins 19. Jahrhundert: ein Metropolen-Kompendium [Berlin’s 19th Century: A Compendium of the Metropolis]. Ed. Roland Berbig et al. Berlin: Akademie- Verlag, 2011. vii, 527 p. ill. 25 cm. ISBN 978-3-05-005083-6: EUR 79.80 [12-2]
This informative 527-page work truly deserves to be called a compendium of Berlin’s history in the 19th century. It goes into great detail to illuminate the historical, social, cultural, and topographical trends that facilitated Berlin’s rapid transformation into a capital city.
The book is divided into four sections that offer a variety of perspectives on the city’s culture and history. The chapters in section one, “Berlin’s Relationship with Europe,” discuss the French Revolution and its profound effect on the development of political thought in Europe, as well as the cultural significance of the Polish uprising, among others. Section two, “Forms of Public Life,” includes portraits of prominent residents of the city, such as Friedrich Buchholz, Bettina von Arnim, and Theodor Fontane. Several of the later chapters in this section trace the architectural and geographical developments of the city as it grew and changed throughout the century, such as a boom in museum-building and the transformation of the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church into a potent national symbol. Section three, “Forms of Perception,” examines the representations of Berlin in literature, private correspondence, and the mass media. The last section, “Transforming through Remembrance,” brings together chapters on the images of the city in literature and popular culture. The work ends with an extensive author and name index.
Overall, the book amply succeeds in providing representative snapshots of the city’s vibrant life in the 19th century. [ni/as]
Biographisches Handbuch zur Geschichte der Berliner Sozialdemokratie in der spätwilhelminischen Ära [Biographical Handbook for the History of Social Democracy in Berlin in the Late Wilhelminian Era]. Matthias John. Berlin: Trafo-Wissenschaftsverlag. 21 cm. ISBN 978-3-89626-996-6 [12-1]
Vol. 1. Arons-Hunschede. 2011. 205 p. ISBN 978-3-89626-991-1: EUR 39.80
Vol. 2. Janke-Zucht. 2011. 203 p. ISBN 978-3-89626-992-8: EUR 39.80
Vol. 3. Führende Vertreter der Berliner Sozialdemokratie in der spätwilhelminischen Ära [Leading Representatives of Berlin Social Democracy in the Late Wilhelminian Era]. 2011. 181 p. ill. ISBN 978-3-89626-993-5: EUR 39.80
This biographical handbook deals not only with the Social Democratic Party but also with the social democratic movement in Berlin between 1905 and 1914. There are separate sections for members of the executive, the administration, the action groups, and those associated with media relations. The individual biographies are very detailed and informative and are accompanied by numerous illustrations; the subtitle to volume 3 reads: “…through the Mirror of Contemporary Photos, Drawings, and Documents.” There are multiple indexes, including cumulative ones, and a bibliography. This book could easily have been issued in one volume. [jli/ldl]
Die Weimarer Reichskanzler: zwölf Lebensläufe in Bildern [The Chancellor of the Reich in the Weimar Era]. Bernd Braun. Düsseldorf: Droste, 2011. 502 p. ill. 29 cm. (Photodokumente zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien, 7). ISBN 978-3-7700-5308-7: EUR 59.80 [12-1]
While the biographies and careers of the 12 chancellors of the Weimar Republic have been studied in minute detail, their visual representations have not been as widely available. The present book contains a 50-page biographical essay on each of the chancellors who were in power between February 1919 and January 1933, with a total of about 800 images (50 to 60 per each chancellor) drawn from numerous public and private collections. Such visual materials have up to now been largely overlooked by scholars, but the book makes clear their potential value as primary sources. In accordance with the bleak spirit of the time, almost all photographs are black-and-white; there are also some color images such as election posters, caricatures (from Simplicissimus, for example), and Time Magazine covers, which featured three of the chancellors: Brüning, Papen, and von Schleicher. A report on the provenance of the images and the selection criteria rounds out this successful volume. [jli/as]
[Ed. note: The IFB review also makes reference to several illustrated biographies of German parliamentarians: Reichstagsabgeordnete der Deutschen Zentrumspartei 1871- 1933 (see RREA 6:253); Bismarcks Reichstag: das Parlament in der Leipziger Straße (see RREA 8:215); Badische Parlamentarier 1867-1874 (Düsseldorf, 1995); and Sächsische Parlamentarier 1869-1918 (see RREA 7:326)].
Heilbronner Köpfe [Heilbronn Notables]. Ed, Hubert Weckbach, Christhard Schrenk. Heilbronn: Stadtarchiv. ill. 24 cm. (Kleine Schriftenreihe des Archivs der Stadt Heilbronn, ...).
Vol. 5 Lebensbilder aus fünf Jahrhunderten [Biographies from Five Centuries]. 2007. 320 p. (…, 56). ISBN 978-3-940646-05-7: EUR 13.40 [11-1]
This series was begun in 1998 by Heilbronn city archivist Hubert Weckbach. His successor, Christhard Schenk, has continued the series, with volumes 2-4 published in 1999, 2001, and 2007 respectively (see IFB 99-B09-462, 02-1-162, and 09-1/2). Volume 5 contains 18 biographies of noteworthy people (men and women) associated with Heilbronn, from the 15th to the 20th centuries. In addition to the texts, there are black-and-white photographs and a select bibliography of secondary and archival sources. Cumulative indexes of persons, places, and institutions cover the preceding volumes in this series, as well. [sh/ldl]
Heilbronner Köpfe [Heilbronn Notables]. Ed, Hubert Weckbach and Christhard Schrenk. Heilbronn: Stadtarchiv. ill. 24 cm. (Kleine Schriftenreihe des Archivs der Stadt Heilbronn, ...).
Vol. 6. Lebensbilder aus zwei Jahrhunderten [Biographies from Two Centuries]. 2009. 294 p. (..., 58). ISBN 978-3-94046-08-8: EUR 14.80 [12-1]
Volumes 1 through 4 appeared in 1998, 1999, 2001, and 2007 respectively (see IFB 99-B09-462, 02-1-162, and 09-1/2). This series appears now to be on a two-year publication schedule, showing that Heilbronn has quite a number of famous past denizens still of interest today, and witnessed by the fact that the editor has had no trouble in recruiting Heilbronn authors to write significant and meaningful essays about these personages. This volume contains extensive biographies of 19 persons from the 19th and mainly the 20th century. These individuals represent all walks of life and professions, including not least the physican Hermann Strauss (1869-1944), who practiced medicine at the Berlin Charité and was murdered in Theresienstadt.
The 19 persons from Volume 6, along with those from previous volumes, are briefly indexed on the website of the Haus der Stadtgeschichte Heilbronn (http://www. stadtarchiv-heilbronn.de/aktuelles - accessed 27 April 2013), which is the successor to the Heilbronn city archive.
In this print volume, as in previous volumes, there is an index of literature and sources (p. 353-358) and a selection of archival sources. Also included is a roster of the 11 contributors, giving their profession and place of work. As well, volume 6 has a cumulative index to the persons included in all six volumes, now totaling over 100 individuals. [sh/ga]
Badische Biographien. Neue Folge [Nazi Leaders in Schaumburg: Perpetrators, Accomplices, Profiteers]. Ed. Frank Werner. 2d ed. Bielefeld: Verlag für Regionalgeschichte, 2010. 663 p. ill. 25 cm. (Kulturlandschaft Schaumburg, 17). ISBN 978-3-89534-877-8: EUR 29
Vol. 6. 2011. xxiv, 516 p. ISBN 978-3-17-022290-8: EUR 36.90.
Badische Biographien is the oldest of three biographical dictionaries devoted to the historical province of Baden. The pre-war Badische Biographien (Heidelberg, 1875-1935) has been digitized and is available at http://digital.blb-karlsruhe.de/blbihd/periodical/ titleinfo/246264 [accessed 30 March 2013]. The new series began publication in 1982, with the first three volumes focusing only on the state of Baden. In 1952 the new state of Baden-Württemberg was established, so that as of volume 4 (1996) only residents of Baden who died between 1910 and 1951 are included, while those from both states who died in 1952 and later are covered together in both this Neue Folge and in Baden-Württembergische Biographien (see RREA 7:288 and RREA 9:176 for reviews of volumes 2 and 3 and IFB 07-2-595 for volume 4).
Volume 5 of Badische Biographien. Neue Folge was reviewed in RREA 12:220. Volume 6, which is the final volume in the series, comprises 152 short biographies, bringing the number of biographies up to 1,042 for the entire series so far. Volumes 1-3 contain 240 biographies that were part of the series before the content was updated to include biographies of residents of both Baden and Württemberg. Access to all entries of these three biographies is provided by a comprehensive index in volume 6 (p. 446-516) and also on the homepage of the Baden-Württemberg Historical Commission, http://www. kgl-bw.de [accessed 30 March 2013], which commissioned this work. [sh/jb]
Württembergische Biographien: unter Einbeziehung hohenzollerischer Persönlichkeiten [Württemberg Biographies, Including Personages from the House of Hohenzollern]. Ed. Maria Magdalena Rückert for the Kommission für Geschichtliche Landeskunde in Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. 33 cm.
Vol. 2. 2011. xxv, 358 p. ill. ISBN 978-3-17-021530-6: EUR 27 [12-4]
The planned five-volume set Württembergische Biographien is slated to include ca. 900 personages from Württemberg and Hohenzollern (the former Prussian royal district of Sigmaringen), thereby filling the gaps between the Württembergischer Nekrolog (Stuttgart, 1913-1928) and Baden-württembergische Biographien (see RREA 7:288 and 9:176 for reviews of volumes 2 and 3 and IFB 07-2-595 for volume 4). This unified biographical resource covers those persons deceased between 1910 and 1951, the year before today’s southwest German province was founded. The six-volume Badische Biographien (Heidelberg, 1875-1935) was continued after World War II by the Badische Biographien, Neue Folge [New Series] (Stuttgart, 1982- ) and since volume 4 (1996) contains only personages from Baden (see RREA 12:220 for a review of volume 5 and RREA 17:146 for a review of volume 6).
The production of Württembergische Biographien has advanced more leisurely than desired. Since its publication was announced in 2004, volume 1 appeared in 2006 (see RREA 12:231) and volume 2 five years later. It contains 149 articles written by 72 contributors (who are listed at the beginning of the volume). The articles average 4 columns in length and consider persons from many walks of life. Longer articles are devoted to the best-known personages, such as Robert Bosch, Isolde Kurz, and Erwin Rommel, but in many cases also to individuals lesser known outside the region. The articles consist of heading, genealogical data, most important achievements and awards, a bibliography of sources and other works, and a portrait.
Volume 2 contains a cumulative index to the 328 names in the first two volumes. If the stated goal of 900 persons is to be reached, the next three volumes will need to contain a greater number of entries per volume. [sh/ga]
Antisemitismus in Stuttgart 1871-1933: Studien zum öffentlichen Diskurs und Alltag [Antisemitism in Stuttgart: Studies on the Public Discourse and Everyday Life]. Martin Ulmer. Berlin: Metropol-Verlag, 2011. 478 p. ill. 25 cm. ISBN 978-3-940938-82-4: EUR 28 [11-2]
Originally presented as a dissertation at the University of Tübingen in 2008, the main value of this study is its comprehensive evaluation of the press and the plenary proceedings of the state legislature in Stuttgart in a period of more than 60 years, in an effort to bring to light the “coded and latent forms of anti-Semitism and on the meaning of the coexistence of moderate and radical hostility toward the Jews” in political culture and daily life. Ulmer has supported his work thorough skilled use of valuable source material that has not yet been utilized by other researchers. Lacking is an analysis of the development of anti-Semitism in Württemberg and Stuttgart. The most significant weakness of the study is Ulmer’s unqualified correlation of anti- Semitism with individual “code words.” While certainly the linguistic analysis of such encoding is valuable, it cannot be automatically linked in all circumstances. Despite these drawbacks, the study energetically engages an important under-addressed area of research. [fr/rlk]
Bayerisches Hauptstaatsarchiv, Bayerischer Landtag [Bavarian State Archive, Bavarian Parliament]. Ed. Renate Herget and Stefan Thiery. München: Generaldirektion der Staatlichen Archive Bayerns. 25 cm. (Bayerische Archivinventare, 59). [13-1]
1. Kammer der Reichsräte [Chamber of the Councils of the Realm]. 2011. 591 p. ISBN 978-3-938831-31-1: EUR 25
This is the first volume in a planned four-volume inventory of the Bavarian State Archive’s collections of the Bavarian Parliament’s publications from 1818 to 1934. A forthcoming IFB will include a review of volumes 2-4, volume 2 of which has also been published in 2011.
Introducing the inventory of the Archive of the Chamber of Imperial Councils, Gerhard Hetzer provides an overview of the Parliament and its archives, detailing the transition from the imperial assembly of representatives of the estates (Ständeversammlung) beginning in 1819 to the Parliament of the free state of Bavaria (up to 1933/34) through a description of the Parliament’s Archive and archivists, its administration, and finally its dissolution, including the Archive, in 1934.
Christoph Bachmann provides a brief history of the Archive from 1934 to the present. After 1934 the Archive was transferred to the Bavarian State Archive, where it remained until moved for safekeeping at the start of World War II. In 1946 the Archive returned to Munich: the papers of the Chamber of Deputies (after 1919 the Bavarian Parliament) were sent to its seat in the Maximilianeum, while the documents of the Chamber of Imperial Councils remained in the Bavarian State Archive. In 2004 the entire holdings of the parliamentary archive (1819–1933) were given to the State Archive in expectation of their quick cataloging and proper preservation. In total, the parliamentary archive contains approximately 10,500 documents occupying a shelf space of 263 meters, in addition to 30 meters devoted to the series of documents and printed materials relating to the dealings of the Parliament.
Other chapters are devoted to archival materials: (1) of the Chamber of Imperial Councils, covering the printed records of plenary sessions, administrative files, and committee files; (2) materials for the Parliament (1919 to 1933), including files on procedural processes pertaining to the drafting of legal legislation and printed minutes (of the sessions) with attachments; and (3) the administrative files of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Parliament for the period 1819–1933.
Processing of this historical collection meets modern archival standards in terms of cataloging, processing, labeling, and storage. Indexes of persons, places, and keywords provide ease of access to the contents of the volume. [jli/jb]
Roth von A bis Z: ein kulturgeschichtliches Stadtlexikon [Roth A to Z: A Cultural-Historical Dictionary]. Guido Schmidt and Sabine Brem. Roth: Stadt Roth, 2011. 280 p. ill. 29 cm. ISBN 978-3-9807012-4-2: EUR 34.80 (email@example.com) [12-1]
There appears to be some kind of competition among the cities of Middle Franconia to publish the most beautiful city dictionary. Since 1999 the Stadtlexikon Nürnberg (see RREA 8:248), Erlanger Stadtlexikon (2002—see IFB 02-2-457), and the Historisches Stadtlexikon Schwabach (2008—see IFB 07-2-599) have appeared. Not to be left out, the city of Roth, with its 25,000 inhabitants, has published a dictionary in connection with its 950th anniversary in 2011. All four dictionaries were compiled by employees of their respective city archives, which makes them authoritative. For the Roth dictionary the authors are the art historian Guido Schmidt and the cultural historian Sabine Brem. This is a cultural-historical dictionary rather than a general one, its 250 articles focusing on persons, firms, events, monuments, and buildings that are important in the history of the city. The unsigned articles end with bibliographical citations and include many illustrations. Eleven sections of historic photographs make up more than half of the volume. It is worth acquiring even for libraries outside of Middle Franconia. [sh/gph]
Biographisches Lexikon für Mecklenburg [Biographical Dictionary for Mecklenburg]. Ed. Andreas Röpcke. Rostock: Schmidt-Römhild. 24 cm. (Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Mecklenburg, Reihe A, ...)
Vol. 6. 2011. 316 p. ill. (..., 6). ISBN 978-3-7950-3750-5: EUR 29 [12-4]
Begun in 1995 (volume 5 was reviewed in RREA 15/16:197), volume 6 covers 70 personages, ranging from the Middle Ages (6) to near the end of the 20th century (20) and from every century in between (no living persons are included). As in volume 5, there are several persons from Mecklenburg ruling houses, as well as several individuals from the law and the church, as well as six organ builders (including four from the Friese family). There are but four women in this volume (fewer than in previous volumes): two from the house of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the author and political figure Henni Lehmann and artist Tisa von der Schulenberg.
The signed articles by some 50 contributors average two pages in length, including portraits. There is an index to this volume, as well as a cumulative index to all six volumes (as this reviewer wished for when reviewing volume 5). Approximately 295 persons are represented in these six volumes. [sh/ga]
Wer war wer in Mecklenburg und Vorpommern: das Personenlexikon [Who was Who in Mecklenburg and Vorpommern: The Dictionary of Personages]. Grete Grewolls. Rostock: Hinstorff, 2011. 1 DVD-ROM + Beilage (8 p. 12 cm). (Edition Konrad Reich). ISBN 978-3-356-01405-1: EUR 79.99 [13-1]
The first print edition of Wer war wer in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Bremen, 1999—see IFB 99-B09-534) contained 4,420 brief biographies and is widely held in libraries. The editor, Grete Grewolls, also produced the Mecklenburg-Vorpommerschen Bibliographie (see RREO 94-3/4-566), and many of the first edition’s biographical subjects are also represented in that bibliography. The electronic, second, edition of Wer war Wer… contains twice the number of entries—9,220—making an expanded print edition prohibitively expensive. A small random sample at the beginning of the alphabet reveals that some articles have been significantly revised; a few others have been slightly edited. An appendix lists a number of reference works for the province of Mecklenburg Vorpommern, among them Sabine Pettke’s Biographisches Lexikon für Mecklenburg (see RREA 15/16:197 for a review of volume 5). The data from the above-mentioned bibliography are not, unfortunately, linked with the entries in the CD-ROM. [sh/ga]
Die Städte Mecklenburgs im Dritten Reich: ein Handbuch zur Stadtentwicklung im Nationalsozialismus, ergänzt durch ein biographisches Lexikon der Bürgermeister, Stadträte und Ratsherren [The Cities of Mecklenburg in the Third Reich: A Handbook of Urban Development under National Socialism, Including a Biographical Dictionary of Mayors, City Councils and Councillors]. Michael Buddrus and Sigrid Fritzlar. Bremen: Edition Temmen, 2011. 862 p. ill. 24 cm. ISBN 978-3-8378-4029-2: EUR 34 [13-1]
Research on the topic of urban history in Germany during the Nazi era has proliferated in recent decades, resulting in a wealth of publications. Issued by the Stiftung Mecklenburg [The Mecklenburg Foundation] and the Institut für Zeitgeschichte München-Berlin [Institute for Contemporary History, Munich-Berlin], this handbook distinguishes itself as particularly notable and a model of its kind. The authors state at the outset of their extensive introduction that their aim was two-fold: to take an inventory of the widely scattered source materials on the history of cities in Mecklenburg during the Nazi era, and also, for the first time to collect and present biographical data for all mayors and city councilors who held office between 1932 and 1945. There are portraits of 60 cities and municipalities in Mecklenburg each presenting information in a more or less standard set of categories covering geographic, demographic, political, and economic aspects and including local institutions and activities of the Nazi party. The second part of the Handbook comprises biographical sketches—some accompanied by photos—of over 1,500 mayors and city councilors. All told, this is a very accurate and usable reference tool for research on the history and leading figures of Mecklenburg cities during the time of the Third Reich. Both in its conception and execution, this work could serve as an example for other jurisdictions to follow in documenting their own histories. [jli/kst]
Uelzen-Bibliographie: das Schrifttum über die Stadt und den Landkreis [Uelzen Bibliography: Writings about the City and the District]. Ed. Angelika Weber. Uelzen: Museums- und Heimatverein des Kreises Uelzen. 25 cm. (Uelzener Beiträge, 16) [11-4]
Vol. 2. Vom Jahr 2001 bis 2010 mit Nachträgen [From the Year 2001 to 2010, with Supplements]. 2011. xvi, 223 p. ill. ISBN 978-3-929864-19-9: EUR 20
Volume 1 (unnumbered) of the Uelzen-Bibliographie was published in 2004 (see IFB 04-2-567), covering the period up to 2001 and containing 8,253 numbered titles on some 700 pages. Six years later volume 2 has appeared, with some 2,000 new entries and about 250 updated entries to those in volume 1, so that there now are about 10,225 entries for this bibliography. Almost without exception, there are no newspaper articles, except for reviews of monographic works, listed. The sources in the bibliography are held in libraries and in private collections.
The work is divided into four parts: (1) the district [Landkreis] of Uelzen, (2) the city of Uelzen, (3) other towns in the district, and (4) individuals and families from all walks of life. Two indexes complete the volume, along with a list of corrigenda to volume 1: the first index lists authors and, where none exists, titles, as well as series and journals dealing with Uelzen; the second covers subjects, including geographic locations and personal, and family names. The bibliographer, Angelika Weber, has her own entry in the author index, being the author of some 45 other bibliographic works. [sh/ga]
Bonner Personenlexikon [Biographical Dictionary of Bonn]. Josef Niesen. 3d rev.and expanded ed. Bonn: Bouvier, 2011. 583 p. ill. 24 cm. ISBN 978-3- 416-03352-7: EUR 49.90 [12-1]
The review of the first edition of this work (2007--see RREA 13:235; the second edition was not reviewed in either RREA or IFB) concluded that it did not offer enough unique material to justify its acquisition, since most entries are also found in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie (ADB) and the Neue deutsche Biographie (NDB). However, there is obviously sufficient demand for a third edition, which suggests that another look at the work is in order. This third edition has increased the number of persons covered from 538 to over 900 important figures in the history of the city of Bonn. As with earlier editions, the criteria for inclusion focus on those Bonn natives who have lived and worked (and been buried) in the city (p. 11-515), and those (over 100 persons) from other places who have made Bonn their permanent residence (p. 517-553).
This third edition can justifiably be described as “revised and expanded.” Articles from earlier editions have been just that; the format has been changed from single-page to double-column and the number of pages increased significantly. This edition also takes into account some of Bonn’s “brown” (i.e., Nazi) years, with a few articles on Nazi functionaries and officials included.
In this edition the articles have brief bibliographies attached. However, the cumulative bibliographies in previous editions have not been included here, so that it would be helpful to keep previous editions of this work in the library collection. On the positive side, the addition of more illustrations and the qualitative improvement of the articles cancel out the harsher judgment in the review of the earlier edition. This is a very useful work for all libraries and readers interested in Bonn’s history. [sh/ga]
Fridericianische Encyclopédie: Friedrich der Große und seine Epoche; das Lexikon; Ereignisse, Personen, Sachverhalte [Encyclopedia Fridericiana: Frederick the Great and his Age. The Dictionary: Events, Persons, Facts]. Jürgen Ziechmann. Bremen: Hauschild; Südmoslesfehn: Edition Ziechmann, 2011. 747 p. ill. maps. 24 cm. (Forschungen und Studien zur Fridericianischen Zeit, 7). ISBN 978-3-89757-501-1 (Hauschild): EUR 88 [11-3]
Since the person of Frederick the Great (1712-1786, ruled 1740-1786) left an indelible imprint on much of Central Europe in the 18th century, a biographical and factual reference work on this era is quite appropriate. Jürgen Ziechmann, a publisher, educator, and professor of pedagogy, has devoted much of his life to the study of this historical period.
The author begins the work with a detailed explanation as to why he chose the more than 900 subject and name entries (from A to Zweiter Schlesischer Krieg [Second Silesian War]). The articles average about three-quarters of a page in length, and ca. one-third of them are about persons, particularly French and also members of German ruling houses. It is surprising that Frederick himself is given only a brief list of important dates in his life and reign.
The subject entries include names of contemporary territories and events (for example, the War of the Bavarian Succession) as well as general subject entries (such as bankruptcy, peasant emancipation, or cotton). Entries for military personnel and militaria are more numerous and better represented in the Handbuch zur preußischen Militärgeschichte 1688-1786 (see RREA 17:157). Bibliographical references in the articles point to the entries in the bibliography and not to outside sources. The 35-page name index, which gives birth and death dates, includes all prominent persons mentioned in the text, i.e., many more than are given individual articles. An appendix contains color maps for 14 of Frederick’s victorious battles, along with a list of Jürgen Ziechmann’s numerous writings. [sh/ga]
Handbuch zur preußischen Militärgeschichte, 1688-1786 [Handbuch of Prussian Military History, 1688-1786]. Martin Guddat. 2d rev. ed. Hamburg: Mittler, 2011. 315 p. ill. 25 cm. ISBN 978-3-8132-0925-9: EUR 19.95 [11-3]
In anticipation of the 300th anniversary of Frederick the Great’s birthdate, the author, a former high official in the German Ministry of Defense, has revised, expanded, and broadened his 2001 Handbuch zur preußischen Militärgeschichte, 1701-1786 (see RREA 7:245).
This work is an encyclopedic dictionary rather than a handbook. For this edition, Martin Guddat has included the reign of Frederick I (1688-1701), which the author considers to be the founding of “classic” Prussia. The number of entries has grown from 700 to about 800, although the enlargement of the time period may account for some of that growth. The second edition also contains the author’s revised estimate of the number of soldiers killed in battle—over 133,000 for Prussia and over 166,000 for its opponents (primarily Austria).
Subject entries cover the military’s organization, materiel, weaponry, equipment, provisions, billeting, leadership, formation, and tactics. The biographical entries cover leading as well as lesser-known military personnel, both domestic and foreign, although the more famous receive longer treatment. The articles have no bibliographical references, but the copious footnotes include sources that are arranged by type in the brief bibliography. Other appendixes include laws and regulations; diaries, memoirs and books; a list of regiments; a table of military ranks; statistics on battles, including the number of generals fallen in battle; and a glossary. The work contains numerous blackand- white illustrations along with color plates of insignia, weapons, and other military equipment. The volume concludes with tables and diagrams of orders of battle. [sh/ga]
Sächsische Persönlichkeiten die Geschichte schrieben [Saxon Personages who Write History]. Klaus Gertoberens. Dresden: Edition Sächsische Zeitung, 2011. 208 p. ill. 23 cm. ISBN 978-3-938325-84-1: EUR 16.90 [12-4]
The author has written a series of popular books, all published by the Edition Sächsische Zeitung, on Saxony in general and on Dresden in particular, from co-authoring in 2009 Dresden: Stadtlexikon [Dresden City Lexicon] to works on right-extremist groups in Saxony, on the Semperoper in Dresden, and a more recent book on famous inventors in Saxony from the 18th century to the present.
Sächsische Persönlichkeiten contains biographies (between two and five pages in length) of 86 persons born in or having flourished in Saxony from the early modern period to the present. It is divided into five time periods (with number of entries): to 1648 (9), 1648- 1763 (17), 1763-1815 (18), 1815-1871 (15), and 1871 onward (27). The entries are arranged chronologically within the sections by year of birth, but article headings include only the name of the individual and his or her profession, and not, unfortunately, birth and death dates and places. Only deceased persons are included in this portion of the book, but there is a section of 109 Kurzporträts von A-Z [Brief Portraits A-Z], of only a few lines each, which include several still-living persons. There are no bibliographical references in the entries; the brief literature and source index lists several internet resources and 12 print editions of dictionaries and collections of biographies, which begs the question of how valuable is yet another biographical dictionary in this realm. [sh/ga]
Die Patrizier der Reichsstadt Ulm: Stadtherren, Gutsbesitzer und Mäzene [The Patricians of the Imperial City of Ulm: City Fathers, Estate Owners, and Patrons]. Ed. Stefan Lang for the Stadtarchiv Ulm - Haus der Geschichte. Ulm: Süddeutsche Verlagsgesellschaft; Ostfildern: Thorbecke, 2011. 176 p. ill. 29 cm. ISBN 978-3-88294-425-9: EUR 28 [12-1]
From the end of the High Middle Ages to the end of the old imperial cities in 1802/03, the patricians as an exclusive leadership class controlled the fortunes of Ulm. They held local offices and also set the tone with their noble lifestyle as art collectors and patrons, as well as donors to churches and other institutions. They carried out diplomatic missions for the Imperial Diet and within the Swabian Circle and did military service in foreign forces. Finally they also acquired country estates near the city and built palaces and manor houses. Despite all these accomplishments, they have received little notice in research. From 2004 to 2011 an entire series of patrician archives could be inventoried and made accessible, from which this eminently readable volume resulted. Stefan Lang first documents the role of the patrician class in the city’s history and then describes their way of life (city houses, estates, and memorials in monasteries and churches).
The origins of the patrician class are hard to determine. One clue is the list of witnesses at the end of documents. The name of the mayor is known from 1292 on, and one can trace the major families. In most periods, eight to 12 families constituted the top group among the patricians and dominated the office of mayor, with 18 families holding that office between 1292 and 1802. The number of families represented among councilors was similarly restricted. The entire patrician class numbered between 500 and 600 people, about two to three percent of the population. The second part documents the lifestyles of the patrician class, and the third points to homes, estates, and memorials that still exist, with many illustrations. The Ulm City Archives, the sponsor of this book, can be commended on this volume. [mik/gph]
Biographisches Lexikon für Schleswig-Holstein und Lübeck [Biographical Dictionary for Schleswig-Holstein and Lübeck]. Ed. Schleswig-Holstein State Library and the Lübeck Historical and Antiquities Society. Neumünster: Wachholtz. 24 cm.
Vol. 13. 2011. Ed. Dieter Lohmeier. 538 p. ill. ISBN 978-3-529-02561-7: EUR 32 [12-4]
As noted in the review of volume 12 (see RREA 12:233), this biographical dictionary occupies a comfortable middle ground between on the one hand long and sometimes disparate classical biographies and on the other hand short-entry biographical dictionaries. It is therefore sad for this reviewer to report that the SHBL, one of the best of its kind in Germany, has ceased print publication with volume 13, and the workshop has been closed. This work did not die of old age, but rather in its prime, due to a withdrawal of financing from the state government. However, the Schleswig-Holstein State Library will host an open-access database (see http://www.shlb.de/biolex.htm) under the same title, with a cumulative index to all 13 volumes. But it is not clear if the SHBL will grow any further in this new environment.
That said, the SHBL forms a part of the bibliography of the history of Schleswig-Holstein and Lübeck. The dictionary is particularly useful for genealogical information. Volume 13 contains 114 signed articles (by 51 contributors), averaging over four pages in length. In all some 18,112 persons and their families are documented in these volumes, with volume 13 offering a cumulative index. [sh/ga]
Historische Persönlichkeiten des Kreises Weimarer Land [Historical Figures of the Weimar District]. Winfried Haun. Bucha bei Jena: Quartus-Verlag, 2011. 223 p. ill. 21 cm. (Palmbaum-Texte, 31). ISBN 978-3-936455-94-6: EUR 12.90 [12-4]
This work is part of a series of collective biographical works on cultural and literary personalities from Thuringia published by the Quartus-Verlag. Previous publications in the series include Thüringer Autoren der Gegenwart [Thuringian Contemporary Authors--see RREA 11:190] and Die 100 wichtigsten Thüringer [The 100 Most Important Thuringians--see RREA 10:260]. This latest volume contains brief biographies of figures from the Weimarer District, a mostly rural area in the German federal state of Thuringia. As was noted in previous reviews of this series, these works are useful mainly to German libraries or those studying Thuringian local history. [sh/jc]
Diener vieler Herren: ehemalige NS-Funktionäre in der SBZ/DDR [Servants of Many Masters: Former Nazi Functionaries in the Soviet Zone of Occupation/ German Democratic Republic]. Harry Waibel. Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 2011. 390 p. 21 cm. ISBN 978-3-631-63542-1: EUR 49.80 [12-1]
Contrary to the GDR propaganda’s claims that any former association with the National Socialist Party precluded persons from occupying positions of power or influence in the country, many of the party’s active members had successful careers in East Germany. The stain of former membership in the NSDAP [Nazi Party] could be completely erased by becoming a member of SED (the Socialist Unity Party of Germany). This dictionary of former NDSAP members in East Germany and the Soviet Occupation Zone contains about 1,500 biographical entries, the overwhelming majority of which (ca. 1,300) are new and unique. Recent archival research, aided by access to former East German archives, has unearthed many previously unknown instances of a Nazi past. Among the subjects of the dictionary are physicians, members of the military, journalists, politicians, cultural figures, and administrators. By far the largest category, comprising about 500 persons, is scientists.
The brief biographical entries provide the dates and locations of birth and death together with other factual data such as party registrations in the Third Reich and in the GDR. No references are included at the end of each entry. A bibliography at the conclusion of the book has listings of sources, archives consulted, and websites. For further reference consult Wer war wer in der DDR? Ein Lexikon ostdeutscher Biographien [Who was Who in the GDR? A Lexicon of East German Biographies] (Berlin, 2010) and Braunbuch DDR: Nazis in der DDR (see RREA 15/16: 191 and 192 respectively). [sh/as]
Die Ministerratsprotokolle Österreichs und der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie. Ser. 2, Die Protokolle des gemeinsamen Ministerrates der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie 1867-1918 [The Protocols of the Council of Ministers of Austria and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Series 2: The Protocols of the Council of Ministers for Joint Affairs, 1867-1918]. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften; Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. 25 cm. ISBN 978-963-05-6005-4
Vol. 6. 1908-1914. Ed. Anatol Schmied-Kowarzik. 2011. 717 p. ISBN 978- 963-05-8872-0: EUR 76 [12-3]
The Council of Ministers for Joint Affairs—a body that was highly unusual from the point of view of constitutional law—was established after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which created a union of two largely self-governing states with separate parliaments. The empire itself had control over foreign relations, the military, and the common finances, which were administered by the ministries of Foreign Affairs, War, and Finance in Vienna. Each of the two parliaments contributed a 60-member delegation of elected representatives, who were tasked with finding the means to administer the country’s joint affairs.
This volume of the ongoing series published by the Austrian Academy of Sciences has 47 protocols of meetings conducted between April 30, 1908 and May 24, 1914, as well as the protocols of unscheduled (or extraordinary) consultations and talks that occurred between December 1, 1907 and December 24, 1912. These meetings were mainly focused on budgetary matters, but also discussed military reforms, Bosnia- Herzegovina, and foreign policy.
The informative introduction is divided into two parts, “Joint Rule and the Joint Council of Ministers,” and “The Activities of the Joint Council of Ministers, 1908- 1914.” It discusses the still-unresolved question of whether common governance was taking place alongside the existence of a joint council of ministers. Useful appendices, such as chronologically organized lists of the protocols, supplements, and expanded protocols, and personal and place indexes conclude the book. [jli/as]
Enciclopedia storica di Venezia [Historical Encyclopedia of Venice]. Giovanni Distefano. Venezia: Supernova, 2011. 1307 p. ill., maps. 25 cm. ISBN 978- 88-96220-51-1: EUR 60An RREA Original Review by Thomas M. Izbicki (Rutgers University)
This detailed encyclopedia covers, in alphabetical order, a wide variety of topics, including “Napoleone, Statuta di” (on a classicizing statute of Napoleon I), the crusade apologist “Sanudo, Marino,” and “Reliquie veneziani” (on Christian relics in the city). Topics such as the “Regata storica” [Historical Boat Regatta] are treated, with lists of the winning gondoliers from 1841 to 2011. The side bars (shaded in gray) range from descriptions of the individual sestieri [sectors or districts] of the city and a list of convents in different sestieri to an extensive article, “Le guerre della Repubblica” [The Wars of the Venetian Republic]. Outside writers about the city, including the German novelist Thomas Mann, the poet Robert Browning, and the dramatist Thomas Otway (the author of the 1682 play Venice Preserv’d, or, A Plot Discover’d), have entries in this massive book.
Distefano and his publisher have not skimped on illustrations. The end pages include a picture of the Piazza San Marco [St. Mark’s Square] and an overview of the city with numbered references to canals, parish churches, and other churches within Venice. Maps and pictures are inserted throughout. Individuals often have thumbnail-size pictures next to their entries. Some sidebars—for example, “Le condanne capitali sotto la Repubblica (737-1791)” [Persons Condemned to Death under the Republic (737- 1791)]—begin with full-page illustrations in black, white, and gray.
The encyclopedia proper is followed by other features. First comes the “Stradario,” a guide to the streets of Venice. Then follows the “Elenco toponomastico del comune” [List of the Names of Places in the Commune], including sestieri as well as features such as streets, courtyards, landings, and bridges. An appendix provides the text of a law concerned with preserving the Venetian linguistic heritage. The volume concludes with a bibliography. Since the individual entries, many of them very brief, do not provide references to sources even by short title, this bibliography will be useful to persons wishing to pursue a topic beyond the entries in this extensive volume.
The content overlaps in part with the topics treated in Atlante storico di Venezia [Historical Atlas of Venice] edited by Distefano (Venezia, 2007, 2d ed. 2008; see RREA 13:243). Enciclopedia storica di Venezia should be treated as a detailed supplement to the earlier publication, being in a dictionary arrangement rather than a set of topical essays as the Atlante storico primarily was. One additional point to note is that the price for this extensive new reference work is remarkably modest.
Dizionario biografico dei siciliani [Biographical Dictionary of Sicilians]. Nicolo` Francesco D’Alessandro. Padova: AltroMondo editore, 2011. 586 p. 20 cm. ISBN 9788862816410: EUR 25
An RREA Original Review by Anthony J. Oddo (Yale University)
This Italian-language work is a comprehensive biographical dictionary of the lives of notable Sicilians. Although the author states that this dictionary was compiled to support the claim that Sicilians are “gli eredi di 2500 anni di civilta`” [the inheritors of 2,500 years of civilization], most of the entries cited cover the post-1700 period. The length of an entry relates to the subject’s importance, but all share a common theme: “uomini che hanno dato splendore alla loro Sicilia, terra di passioni, contraddizioni, cultura e coraggio” [men who have given splendor to their Sicily, a land of passions, contradictions, culture, and courage]. The island constitutes a significant region of Italy with a distinctive culture and history, as well as a major source of Italian immigration to the United States.
Designed for speedy searches, each biographic citation includes birth and death dates, occupation, biographical data (when known), and, when applicable, notable publications. Thus, the entry for Vincenzo Crescimone, for example, includes his birth and death dates, his occupation (philosopher and literary critic), a short biography, and a list of Crescimone’s publications. Giuseppe Crestadoro, 1711-1808, was a painter whose creations can be seen in various churches throughout Sicily. Francesco Paolo Filippone was a theologian whose sole publication, Theologia dommatica [Dogmatic Theology], was published in six volumes after the author’s death in 1819. There is no index, but D’Alessandro does close with a short bibliography, which appears to be more historical than biographical.
Institutions offering programs in Italian language and history would find Dizionario biografico dei siciliani a valuable resource. This work is also a valuable worthwhile addition to the personal libraries of individual scholars whose research focuses on Sicily and its civilization.
Handbuch der Text- und Sozialgeschichte Osteuropas: von der Spätantike bis zum Nationalstaat [Handbook of the Literary and Social History of Eastern Europe: From Late Antiquity to the Nation-State]. Siegfried Tornow. 2d, rev. ed. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2011. 696 p. 25 cm. (Slavistische Studienbücher, N.F., 16). ISBN 978-3-447-06420-0: EUR 49.80 [11-2]
Except for the title change from Was ist Osteuropa? [What is Eastern Europe?] (see RREA 11:208) and some corrected typos and omissions, the second edition of this handbook differs minimally from the 2005 first edition.
The book’s strength lies in the detailed presentation of the origins and development of Central and Eastern European literatures over time. Focussing geographically on the region between the Elbe and Volga rivers, it ranges from the time of Charlemagne to the First World War. The material is arranged chronologically in six chapters, from late antiquity to the 19th century. The present time is discussed briefly in an epilogue. Each chapter is subdivided into sections on specific regions, which in turn consist of subsections on the individual nations and their languages, literatures, and cultures. These contain a discussion of key texts drawn from Christian, Jewish, and Muslim sources, and biographies of the most significant authors.
Tornow’s work concludes with an 11-page bibliography, an index of persons, and a detailed index of place names (new to this edition). The book remains a valuable interdisciplinary reference source for the study of Central and Eastern Europe. [ks/as]
Les Français en Russie au siècle des Lumières: dictionnaire des Français, Suisses, Wallons et autres francophones en Russie de Pierre le Grand à Paul Ier [The French in Enlightenment-Era Russia: Dictionary of the French, Swiss, Walloons, and Other Francophones in Russia from Peter the Great to Paul I]. Anne Mézin and Vladislav Rjéoutski. 2 vols. Ferney-Voltaire: Centre international d’étude du XVIIIe siècle, 2011. ISBfN 9782845590359 (set); 9782845590458 (vol. 1), 9782845590465 (vol. 2): EUR 160
An RREA Original Review by Anna L. Shparberg (Rice University)
The Russian-French ties go back more than a thousand years. Nevertheless, it was not until the 18th century that French culture made its most significant imprint upon the country that was aspiring to become a European power. This was the time when knowledge of French was the key to entry into the Western world. As part of a great influx of Westerners into Russia, a small but vibrant francophone community was firmly established in the country by the end of the century. In spite of their comparatively modest numbers, the contributions of these immigrants to the Westernization of Russia were very significant.
While this topic has not been neglected by historians, past research has tended to focus on the members of the creative professions (mostly architects, musicians, and artists) as well as on politicians, scientists, and military men. Those people who practiced more mundane occupations—such as tutors, merchants, cooks, jewelers, and gardeners— have received far less attention from scholars. This elegant two-volume dictionary aims to correct that omission by presenting a more complete picture of the growth and development of the francophone community in Russia, highlighting its religious and occupational diversity, its relations with the Russian population, and reasons for its eventual assimilation. The work draws on a considerable body of previous research, including recent publications, and also makes heavy use of unpublished and rare archival materials.
The whole first volume of the work is taken up by a massive and valuable scholarly apparatus. The preface discusses the criteria for the inclusion of persons in the book, such as knowledge of French as the mother tongue or cultural self-identification as well as national origins. For example, it was unthinkable not to include the Huguenots who arrived in Russia following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, even though some of them no longer spoke French. The preface also contains notes on the transliteration and transcription of French names into Russian and vice versa, with a transliteration table from Russian to French. An extensive historical introduction of 150 pages outlines the history of the French community from the late 17th century to the era of Paul I.
Sections begin with beautiful black-and-white illustrations, mainly copied from contemporary engravings, which add greatly to the aesthetic appeal of the book. Several 18th-century maps of Russia, as well as of its two most significant cities, St. Petersburg and Moscow, are inserted between the preface and the introduction. Annotations to the Russian-language maps point out the key locations mentioned in the dictionary.
The copious appendixes begin with contemporary registers of the French and francophone persons in Russia. These listings include the prisoners of war in Danzig; the settlers of 1764; the French residing in Moscow in 1777 (a list compiled by the French consul in Moscow at the time, Pierre Martin); the persons who took the oath of loyalty to the French crown in 1793 (the text of the oath is enclosed); the parishioners of the Église Saint-Louis-des-Français de Moscou [Church of St. Louis of the French of Moscow] making confession in 1798; the Knights of the Order of Malta who travelled to Russia during the reign of Paul I; the captains of merchant ships sailing to Russian ports; and, finally, people mentioned in documents without enough information for a full article.
Next is a detailed timeline correlating the interior affairs of Russia with the foreign relations of France, Russian-French relations, and cultural events in Russia from the mid-17th century to 1801. Also included are the official Russian Table of Ranks and an alphabetical list of Russian terms for weights and measures, selected ranks and institutions, as well as toponyms.
The extensive bibliography begins with an enumeration of the manuscript sources, which come from state and private archives in France, Russia, and half a dozen other countries. The section on printed sources provides both the original Cyrillic script and transliteration for Russian-language citations. The bibliography concludes with a long list of works consulted in the process of compiling the book.
The remaining third of volume one is dedicated to the indexes. The largest one contains names classified by social and professional categories, such as actors, merchants, architects, servants, governors, Freemasons, members of the military, hairdressers, priests, architects, hotel owners, adventurers, and spies—to name but a few. Next come an index of names by place of birth or other origin and a general index of people, places, and terms mentioned in the articles. An exhaustive alphabetical listing of all persons either appearing in articles in the second volume or mentioned in the annexes of this first one, plus a list of illustrations conclude this volume.
Volume two contains the biographical articles comprising the heart of the dictionary. People belonging to the same family are grouped together, with a short note on the family history and arms when available. Individual entries are usually half a column long but can run to three pages or more. Extremely rich in biographical detail, they are followed by extensive bibliographies that include both primary (manuscript and print) and secondary sources. Sections dedicated to each letter of the alphabet are separated by paired contemporary engravings, mostly of city landscapes.
This beautifully published, informative dictionary will greatly add to our knowledge both of Western immigration into Russia and of the history of the Age of Enlightenment in Europe. Les Français en Russie au siècle des Lumières is strongly recommended for academic collections in European history and Slavic studies.
Rossiiskoe zarubezh’e vo Frantsii, 1919-2000: biograficheskii slovar’ v trëkh tomakh [The French [Russian Émigrés in France, 1919-2000: A Biographical Dictionary]. L.A. Mnukhin, Marie Avril, and Véronique Lossky. 3 vols. Moskva: Nauka: 174 DG-11 – Europe Reference Reviews Europe Annual - 17 Dom-muzei? Mariny TSvetaevoi?, 2008-2010. ISBN 9785930151053 (set) or 9785020362673 (set): $435
An RREA Original Review by Anna L. Shparberg (Rice University)
The preface to this grand three-volume work created by an international team of scholars defines as its purpose the presentation, as accurately and completely as possible, of the many contributions made by Russian émigrés to the social, scholarly, and cultural life of France and the Russian diaspora. With over 16,000 name entries, the dictionary certainly succeeds in satisfying this ambition.
The book’s extensive coverage has been achieved largely by expanding its selection criteria to include previously under-researched and poorly represented groups. The biggest influx of new names resulted from the dictionary’s focus on the “second and third tiers” of Russian emigration, that is, on ordinary people who received little or no attention in previous works. Casting the broadest possible net, the compilers have also included numerous people who spent little time on French soil if they in any way contributed to the cultural, political, or religious life there. For example, the extensive entry on Alexander Solzhenitsyn focuses on his considerable lecturing and publishing activities in France. Similarly, journalist Grigorii Akimov, who studied in France but spent his life in Russia and China (albeit writing for a francophone newspaper in Shanghai), has been included. The book’s geographical coverage extends to the French colonies with large Russian émigré communities, in particular Morocco and Tunisia.
Previous publications on the history of the Russian diaspora have tended to focus on the activities of the first wave of emigration, which occurred in the wake of the Russian Revolution of 1917. (An example is the eight-volume chronicle of Russian emigration in France edited by Lev Mnukhin and T.L. Gladkova, Russkoe zarubezh’e: khronika nauchnoi, kul’turnoi i obshchestvennoi zhizni, 1920-1940, 1940-1975 [The Russian Diaspora: A Chronicle of Its Scholarly, Cultural, and Social Life, 1920-1940, 1940-1975], published in Moscow and Paris, 1995-2005). [Ed. note: see RREA 8:143 and 144 for a brief bibliography of works on Russian émigré writers in France and Germany during this period.]The current book follows this tradition but also attempts to widen the time frame by putting more emphasis on present-day personalities. Other additions are children and grandchildren of émigrés, as well as French citizens whose activities brought them into contact with the Russian diaspora. The initial name list for the book was derived from Mnukhin and Gladkova’s 1995-2005 publication; it was substantially enhanced by utilizing additional sources such as encyclopedias and other reference works in half a dozen languages, periodicals, documents, archival materials, databases, tombstones, and cemetery records, as well as oral histories. Volume 1 begins with a Russian-language preface, while the other two volumes have prefaces in both Russian and French. Articles vary in length from a few lines to a full page or more, with an average length of about a quarter-column. In general, they highlight their subjects’ activities during the French period of their lives. For a variety of reasons, including the widespread use of oral histories, the sources are not cited at the article level. The scarcity of biographical information has in some cases led to confusing and possibly duplicated entries. The compilers were faced with numerous challenges in tracking down biographical data such as the exact dates of birth and death—a problem often compounded by the difference between the Julian and Gregorian calendar dates and by contradictory archival data. The place of interment is often included, since cemetery records and tombstones constituted important sources of information for the book.
Any work on the Russian diaspora in the West has to deal with converting names from the Latin to the Cyrillic alphabet and vice versa. Unfortunately, this conversion is where the compilers have stumbled. The book transcribes all Western, especially French, proper names into Cyrillic, leaving the readers to do quite a bit of detective work to figure out the original, which is often a challenge since French pronunciation differs markedly from its spelling. Some examples are articles on the Comtesse Humilly de Chevilly (found under the Russian letter for “Sh”), Victor Henri (under “A”), and Marie and Serge d’Hotman de Villiers (under “O”). Occasionally some Latin-alphabet entries, such as noms de plume, are included, appended at the end of Cyrillic letter sections. Again, Russian phonetic conventions determine these placements, often to the detriment of clarity. For example, Dominique Hennemont appears at the end of the section for Cyrillic “E” (romanized by the Library of Congress as E), following “Efrussi.” The section under the Cyrillic letter for “IA” ends with two Latin-script names, Janek and Jason.
Improving the book’s usefulness for the Western scholar would have required a minimal amount of effort. Both problems could have been fixed by a consistent inclusion of Latin-alphabet spellings in articles, together with the addition of an index of Latinalphabet names—both straightforward transliterations and pseudonyms—keyed to the Cyrillic entries used in this dictionary.
An addendum at the end of volume three provides additions and corrections for the first two volumes (A-K and L-R). Next is an extensive source list, which includes books, e-resources, archives, periodicals, and cemeteries both in Paris (over 60) and in the provinces. The volume ends with a listing of Russian orphanages and retirement homes as well as a map of France indicating its départements. Here, happily, all place names are spelled out in both Russian and French.
As the largest compendium of biographical information on the Russian émigrés in France and beyond, Rossiiskoe zarubezh’e vo Frantsii, 1919-2000 presents a broader, more nuanced view of this community that has ever been possible before. In spite of the above-listed shortcomings, it is an indispensable aid for researchers. It is to be hoped that the proposed online database will be an efficient way to add further information and to correct inaccuracies. The book is recommended for academic library collections with an interest in European history or Slavic studies.
He Glossa tes geuses: lexiko tes historias tes Hellenikes diatrophes [The Language of Taste: Dictionary of the History of the Greek Diet]. Marianna Kavroulake. Athena: Asprimera Publications, 2011. 317 p. ill. 24 cm. ISBN 978-960-99484- 3-2: EUR 15 (Phalerou 57, 117 42 Athena, fax [30 210] 9223982, phone [30 210] 9223988, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org)
An RREA Original Review by George I. Paganelis (California State University, Sacramento)
While cookbooks covering the world’s cuisines are in abundant and ever-growing supply, food dictionaries specific to any given culture detailing the terminology, ingredients, dishes, preparation and cooking methods, and local variations on food are considerably scarcer. This is certainly the case regarding Greek culinary publications, a surprising fact given the pervasiveness of Greek cuisine as a consequence of diaspora. As such, this dictionary successfully fills an enduring void pertaining to Greek food, presenting “Hellenike gastrimargike koultoura mesa apo lexeis” [Greek gourmand culture through words] and evoking a rich culinary history with great local diversity, for which it was honored as a 2012 Gourmand Award winner under the category of “food literature.”
A previous food dictionary, Alexandros G. Kardoules’s Hodegos trophimon kai poton: triglosso hermeneutiko lexiko, Helleno-Anglo-Galliko = Trilingual Dictionary of Food and Drink, Greek-English-French = Dictionnaire trilingue des aliments et des boissons, appeared in Athens in 1989, but due to its general scope yet more technical emphasis, it cannot be counted as a true predecessor to this work.
The approximately 800 entries are organized alphabetically in three columns per page, with a list of terms under each letter and a color photograph preceding entries themselves. Entries range from a few lines to as many as eight columns for terms such as elaiolado [olive oil] and other central elements in Greek cooking. In brackets beneath the main entry are given variant forms or spellings of the word, local equivalents and their source in parentheses, and the taxonomical name of plants and fruits. The derivations of other terms—be they of Ancient Greek, Turkish, Persian, Italian, or other origin—offer useful background information on the diverse sources of what is commonly seen as a homogeneous cuisine.
The bulk of the work comprises the types of ingredients that make up Greek cooking itself: fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, nuts, grains, herbs, and spices. Notably, Kavroulake has included select food-related terms of historical, religious, and dietetic import. “Amerikanike voetheia” [American aid], for example, describes the American role in famine relief in Greece during World War II as part of the UNRRA program; there is an entry on fasting (nesteia) and its significance; and several terms of particular currency also appear, such as viologika proïonta [organic products], genetika tropopoiemenos organismos [genetically modified organism], and gloutene [gluten]. Within entries the author has interspersed a wide array of excerpts and quotations (all in Modern Greek) from ancient through modern sources, describing the origin, name, preparation, presentation, and cultural context of many terms. Some entries even include whole recipes. An extensive bibliography with separate lists of non-Greek and Greek sources concludes the volume.
Browsing the work, it becomes clear that a fair number of words are in fact localisms for their better-known counterparts and in some cases are cross-referenced to the general term. However, this practice is not systematic throughout; for example, the Cephalonian term for onions, aschinikara, has its own lemma but is nowhere mentioned in the lemma for onion (kremmydi).
Considering how compelling an introduction to culture the food and culinary customs of a people often is, He Glossa tes geuses presents a satisfying array of offerings on Greek food and foodways. The lack of consistent cross-referencing notwithstanding, it is a very useful and informative lexicon recommended for collections in Hellenic studies and culinaria alike. Readers seeking further information about the author and her activities, including the Symposia of Greek Gastronomy that she has organized, are directed to her History of Greek Food Web site (http://historyofgreekfood.wordpress. com/, accessed September 13, 2012).
Viographike enkyklopaideia tou neoterou Hellenismou 1830-2010: archeia hellenikes viographias [Biographical Encyclopedia of Modern Hellenism, 1830-2010: Archives of Greek Biography]. Comp. Demosthenes Koukounas and Natasa Koukouna. 3 vols. Athena: Ekdoseis Metron, 2011. ill. 30 cm. ISBN 978-960- 7201-79-9 (set): EUR 270
An RREA Original Review by George I. Paganelis (California State University, Sacramento)
The availability of published biographical information on major and minor figures across all walks of life in the Anglo-American world constitutes a veritable embarrassment of riches, made greater with the growing omnipresence of Wikipedia. In contrast, biographical publications on significant figures in modern Greek life have been considerably less frequent and thus less current. This encyclopedia incorporates information from earlier Greek sources with material on contemporary figures into an up-to-date synthesis of the most prominent figures in Greek life over a span of 180 years, drawing on such antecedent works as the five-volume Mega hellenikon viographikon lexikon [Great Greek Biographical Dictionary] (Athena, 1958-1962); the ten-volume Pankosmio viographiko lexiko [Universal Biographical Dictionary] (Athena, 1983-88); and, for living persons, the 1992 through 2009/2010 volumes of Who’s Who: epitomo viographiko Lexiko [Who’s Who: Abridged Biographical Dictionary] (Athena, 1992-), from the same publisher as the present work.
Originally conceived in 1991, this three-volume encyclopedia profiles more than 17,000 individuals (generously illustrated with nearly 7,000 portraits) who distinguished themselves since 1830 as public figures in politics, the arts and literature, academics, entertainment, and various other fields. Public fame or eminence is the main criterion for inclusion, but in some cases lesser-known figures of historic, albeit short-lived, importance make an appearance, while others are excluded for want of sufficient available information. The majority of the entries are devoted to persons from Greece, with attention paid also to significant individuals from Cyprus and the diaspora. Political personages such as members of parliament and government ministers are granted widest inclusion even if their tenure was brief. Most women profiled are still living. Entries range from a few lines to more than six columns—over three full pages—for renowned figures such as Eleutherios Venizelos, and entries for major authors, musicians, and artists feature highlights from their oeuvres. A bibliography of works consulted concludes the set.
There is much to be admired in this reference work, the most up-to-date comprehensive biographical source of modern Greek biography that includes a substantial proportion of living figures. Some shortcomings do exist, however. The most minor of them is the lack of cross-referencing within entries, which would have been useful. In some cases information included in the entries for living persons in the Greek Who’s Who dictionaries referenced above regrettably has been omitted in this work, while in others entries are not fully up to date. In a work of this size, certain factual errors inevitably find their way into the final product. Recognizing this problem, the editors and publisher welcome additions, corrections, and supplementary information—including terminal information upon the death of living figures—for subsequent editions. One cannot help but wonder about the future of massive print reference sources such as this one when their electronic equivalents would exponentially enhance search capabilities and make needed addenda and corrigenda easy to accomplish. Nevertheless, as it stands Viographike enkyklopaideia tou neoterou Hellenismou 1830-2010 should be considered the essential biographical dictionary on modern Greece for academic and research libraries.
Pene¯nta chronia Kypriakou Koinovouliou: hoi antiproso¯poi tou laou = Kibris Meclisi’nin elli yili: halkin temsilcileri = Fifty Years of Cyprus Parliament: The Representatives of the People. Geo¯rgia Andronikou et al. Leuko¯sia: Hype¯resia Ereuno¯n, Meleto¯n kai Ekdoseo¯n Voule¯ to¯n Antiproso¯po¯n, 2010. 319 p. 27 cm. ISBN 9789963390205: EUR 15
An RREA Original Review by Anthony J. Oddo (Yale University)
This volume is a comprehensive trilingual (Greek, Turkish, and English) biographical dictionary of Cypriot parliamentary representatives, issued to commemorate the first 50 years of the Cyprus Parliament. The preface best summarizes the nature of the work, “to pay a well deserved tribute to the persons who consolidated the parliamentary, in Greek, Turkish, and English institutions.” It covers the nine parliamentary terms through 2011. Each entry lists, in all three languages, the individual member’s year and place of birth, studies, profession, foreign language expertise, and parliamentary tenure. A portrait accompanies each entry.
The index is divided into two distinct parts. The first part, consisting of multiple sections, is broken down by parliamentary term, beginning with the First Parliamentary Term, 1960-1970. Members of each parliament are listed alphabetically. Also listed, separately, are representatives to each parliament from various religious groups, including Maronite, Armenian, and Latin Christians, although they were not full parliamentary members per se. The second part, a general index, provides access to all persons in a single alphabetical listing. The book ends with abbreviations for political parties and other affiliations. All of the indexes and the list of abbreviations are in Greek, Turkish, and English.
This biographical dictionary would be an important addition to an academic or major research library with collections supporting research in Cypriot, Greek, or Turkish history and politics. The use of English provides helpful access to this resource for those who do not read Greek or Turkish.
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Last update: November 2013 [RT]
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