DA -- History and Area Studies


A Bibliographical Guide to Classical Studies. Graham Whitaker. Hildesheim [et al.]: Olms-Weidmann. 27 cm

Vol. 1. General, History of Literature, Literature: Acciu-Aristophanes (entries 1 - 3073). 1997. xxiv, 372 p. ISBN 3-487-10465-2: DM 228.00

Vol. 2. Literature: Aristotle-Fulgentius (entries 3074-6532). 1997. viii, 355 p. ISBN 3-487-10466-0: DM 228.00

This bibliography covers scholarship (in Greek and Latin scripts only) on classical antiquity from the beginnings, including prehistoric Greece but excluding Bronze Age archaeology to about 600 A.D. The two volumes published so far, together with the forthcoming third and fourth volumes, deal largely with literature. Volume 5 will be devoted to the Greek and Latin languages. Four additional volumes are planned to cover history (vol. 6), archaeology, art, architecture, mythology, and religion (vol. 7), natural sciences, influence and reception, biography, and collections, festschriften, proceedings, etc. (vol. 8), and journals and an index to the complete work (vol. 9). The headings to individual chapters are found only in the table of contents. On page 107 one reaches 022A, but one has to turn to the table of contents to find out that this is the beginning of the chapter on "Literature: poetry." Under each subject, entries are organized as follows: (1) Dictionaries, encyclopedias; (2) Handbooks, manuals; (3) Surveys; (4) Bibliographies;(5) Editions;(6.1) Commentaries, scholia; (6.2) Dictionaries, indices and (7) Studies and other secondary literature. Within each section the entries are organized chronologically. Placing the most recent edition of a work under the year in which the first edition appeared makes the otherwise useful chronological overview problematic, particularly where a later edition is a completely different work from the original.

Coverage begins in 1873, to coincide with the founding of C. Bursian's annual Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft; the cutoff date of 1980 (not always strictly observed) appears more arbitrary and is probably explained by the origins of this work, which was begun in 1984 as a thesis for Fellowship of the Library Association. The gap of over fifteen years of recent scholarship significantly limits the usefulness of this bibliography.

Limiting coverage to monographs in a bibliography such as this cannot be justified, and it is its major deficiency. This used to be a more common practice than it is today, but it was no more justifiable then than now. The annotations, which summarize the content and are occasionally evaluative, are, on the other hand, a very valuable feature.

One's reaction to this major bibliographic project is, in the final analysis, a mixed one. The restriction to monographs is a serious drawback and means that serial subject bibliographies, especially L'année philologique, remain indispensable--particularly with the improvement of multi-year cumulations in digital format. Its primary usefulness is in its cumulation of a very long reporting period, and some forms of publication (e.g., text editions, which generally appear as monographs) are well served. IFB/RRE will continue to review the work as additional volumes appear. [sh/mm]


Der neue Pauly: Enzyklopädie der Antike; (DNP) [The New Pauly: Encyclopedia of Antiquity]. Ed. Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider. Stuttgart; Weimar: Metzler. 27 cm. ISBN 3-476-01470-3 (entire work, 15 vols.): DM 4,020.00

Altertum [Classical Age]

Vol. 1. A-Ari. 1996.liii p., 1154 columns. ISBN 3-476-01471-1

Vol. 2. Ark-Ci. 1997. xii p., 1226 columns. ISBN 3-476-01472-X

Vol. 3. Cl-Epi. 1997. li p., 1180 columns. ISBN 3-476-01473-8

The original Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (RE) was begun by August Friedrich von Pauly (1796-1845), a teacher, as a reference tool for high school teachers and students. It covered Graeco-Roman antiquity to 476 and related Near Eastern cultures, insofar as they were documented in Greek and Roman sources. Ernst Christian Walz (1802-1857) and Wilhelm Siegmund Teuffel (1820-1878) took over when Pauly died during the preparations for the fourth volume. With more collaborators, later volumes appeared more quickly and were written at a higher scholarly level. The Stuttgart publishing house of Metzler has been the publisher from the first edition to the present day. It produced a more thorough second edition of volume one in two parts (1864 and 1866), and, under the editorship of Marburg professor Georg Wissowa, published a new edition of "Pauly" at the end of the 19th century. Encompassing the same time period as the earlier work, the new edition gave more attention to neighboring cultures and Byzantium. Supplements were planned at the outset to keep the work up to date. Wilhelm Kroll (1869-1939) took over in 1906. Over the next 29 years he transformed RE into a combination of introductory articles and authoritative monographs and, together with Erlangen professor Kurt Witte, began a second series to speed up completion of the whole work, beginning with the letter R. The Breslau teacher Karl Mittelhaus (1877-1946) succeeded Witte. Publication stopped in October 1943 and resumed after 1945 under the leadership of Konrat Ziegler (1884-1974). The second series was completed in 1972 with the 19th half-volume; a student of Ziegler's, Hans Gartner, published the supplement volumes 14 and 15 in 1974.

The RE is certainly one of the most comprehensive scholarly dictionaries and an indispensable standard work for anyone working in the field of classical antiquity. Articles range from a few lines to hundreds of columns, reflecting the differing tendencies of the editors. The lengthier articles are practically classics in themselves, and some remain the most thorough treatments of particular topics. The dictionary is intended for specialists and assumes knowledge of Latin and Greek, as well as of the abbreviations used in the field. Parenthetical references throughout the text hamper reading but provide the most important and sometimes complete source literature (the secondary literature is outdated).

Der Kleine Pauly (DKP), published from 1964 to 1965, includes the core of the RE, as well as additional material. It is an excellent source for someone who wishes to inform herself quickly, and has not been surpassed by other relatively small classical dictionaries published subsequently. It is especially recommended for personal use because of its price and size.

Der Neue Pauly (DNP) (1996- ) is being published under the general editorship of Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider, with the help of 23 editors and 700 contributors. It sees itself very much in the tradition of RE. It covers all areas of Graeco-Roman antiquity from the Bronze and Iron Ages (1200-800 BC) to early medieval Europe (600-800 AD), with appropriate consideration given to preceding and neighboring cultures and much greater emphasis on economic, social, and everyday history, as well as archaeology, than in the earlier edition. DNP will contain 24,000 articles in fifteen volumes: twelve on antiquity and three in a second part covering reception history and the history of classical studies. (The relationship between the two parts of DNP is, unfortunately, not always very clear.) An index volume (also containing maps) will conclude the work. With volume 1 issued in the fall of 1996, publication is to continue at the rate of two volumes a year.

DNP is essentially an expanded new edition of Der Kleine Pauly (DKP). It is conceived as a dictionary, and not as an encyclopedia and is intended for a general audience (e.g., no Greek necessary), but the inconsistent provision of transliterations, translations, and inadequate cross-referencing makes use by beginners difficult. The first three volumes contain well-organized, signed articles, including footnotes, cross-references, and additional relevant terms; helpful genealogies and maps are appended to many. However, the length and completeness of the articles and their bibliographies is inconsistent--for some of the longer articles, there are few references indeed, and for the shorter articles one finds sometimes more text for the bibliography than for the articles themselves. The footnotes are poorly marked and organized. The relationship of the Islamic and Arabic-Persian world to the ancient world of Europe is not sufficiently elaborated, and the transcription tables for Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman are incomplete and inconsistent with DIN conventions.

Volumes 1 and 3 contain user instructions, transcription tables, indexes to abbreviations, maps and illustrations, and a list of authors and translators. Transliterations and the full list of abbreviations are unfortunately excluded from volume 2. The rules for forming Roman personal names changes with the third volume. Geographic names appear in their Latin form; modern forms will be indicated only in the index. The bibliographic references are often out-of-date and poorly chosen--this is the greatest weakness of the DNP--as well as being inconsistently formatted and generally difficult to read and to use.

A final judgement about the quality of the DNP can only be given once it is completed. It is visually well-designed and encourages browsing and reading. It is written understandably and gives the reader the most important information and well-formed opinions. It does not replace the Kleine Pauly--to say nothing of the Realencyclopädie--and scholars will presumably have to consult all three. [kh/mm]


Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft [Encyclopedia of Classical Antiquity]. Founded by August F. Pauly. Rev. Georg Wissowa. Stuttgart; Weimar: Metzler.24 cm

Gesamtregister [Complete Index]. Ed. Tobias Erler. ISBN 3-476-01195-X [entire work]

Vol. 1. Alphabetischer Teil [Alphabetical Section]. 1997. viii, 1158 p. + 1 CD-ROM. ISBN 3-476-01193-3: DM 498.00 (book and CD-ROM)

The new complete index to the important Realencyklopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft is the first to cover the entire work. An earlier index from 1980 was limited to the supplemental volumes. The first, alphabetical part of the new index appeared in both print and CD-ROM in 1997. The second, classified part is due out in 1998.

The alphabetical index includes keywords, additions, corrections, supplementary keywords, and article authors, as well as annotations for articles of more than twenty lines. Among the problems carried over from the RE itself are the organization of personal names by nomen gentile (Julius Caesar will have to be found among all the other Juliuses, with no entry under Caesar), and the lack of cross-references. The listing of article authors at the end is most often by last name only, sometimes also with the complete first name, and sometimes with just the initial of the first name. To find the complete form of the name, one must consult the 1980 index. However, the index is doubtless a useful tool.

The contents of the CD-ROM are identical to that of the printed edition, but with additional search options. The software is Folio VIEWS 3.1 for Windows 3.1. A help file explains only the primary search options specific to the RE index. The Folio help files offer extensive information about options such as Boolean searching, but cover many search possibilities that are not useful. There is no context-sensitive help. Lemmata, author, keyword, and full-text searches are possible. An index window that displays the term in context is especially helpful for variant spellings.

With 6,500 hyperlinked cross-references, the CD-ROM version is particularly useful when the form of entry for a person is not known. In addition, the use of wildcards in the full-text search addresses variant spellings. The lack of a controlled vocabulary is especially unfortunate since only entries of twenty or more lines are annotated. A thesaurus, especially, would have been desirable, but it would no doubt have bogged down the entire project. [kh/mm]


Classical Studies: A Guide to the Reference Literature. Fred W. Jenkins. Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1996. ix, 263 p. 24 cm. (Reference Sources in the Humanities Series) ISBN 1-56308-110-5: $ 43.00

Focused on providing bibliographical and information resources in classical studies, the 667 annotated entries of this guide list monographs only, and give preference to English-language works, but include also a relatively large number of French, German, Italian, and Spanish titles. A special effort was made to cover electronic publications and Internet resources. Divided into three sections (Bibliographical Resources, Information Resources, Organizations), the entries are provided with useful annotations that summarize the content and offer comparisons to related works. The titles are convincingly chosen, though coverage in a few disciplines (philosophy, metrics and music) is relatively weak. Bibliographical references are complete and reliable. Detailed author, title, and subject indexes are provided. The guide is designed for reference librarians, students, and interested laymen, but can also be useful to classical scholars working outside their immediate area as well. This exceptionally useful and solid reference work is among the best in its field and should be included in the collection of every academic library. [kd/mj]

 An RREO Original Review 

Aux sources de l'antiquité classique gréco-romaine: guide bibliographique [On the Sources of Greco-Roman Antiquity: Bibliographical Guide]. J. Poucet and J.-M. Hannick. 5th rev. and expanded ed. Bruxelles; Namur: Artel, 1997. 313 p. 24 cm. ISBN 2-87374-019-1. (Artel, place Badouin Ier, 2 - B-5004 Namur)

The new edition of this well-regarded guide to classical bibliography follows the same general plan as its predecessors. Its major divisions cover the ancient sources (literary texts, epigraphy, papyrology, archaeology, numismatics, anthologies, and sourcebooks); reference and research tools; and key secondary works for each area of classical studies. Many of the changes from the fourth edition (which appeared only two years earlier; cf. the review at RREO 96-2/3-343) consist of new information about electronic resources and websites. Only a handful of printed works have been added and a few superseded works deleted.

The section on sources provides a good orientation to the major series of classical texts and to both major and minor collections and corpora (including electronic ones, such as CETEDOC). It also provides some basic guidance for locating published editions of papyri and inscriptions, although most will prefer more detailed and specialized guides (which are noted by the authors). The second section covers a wide range of reference works and bibliographies. The organization is effective and most works receive brief descriptive and evaluative annotations. Poucet and Hannick have updated information about electronic databases, but are sometimes still behind: this edition includes a description of the first release of the Database of Classical Bibliography (not in the previous edition) although the second release is now available. The third section, "Bibliographie d'orientation," provides lists of basic works for each field within classical studies. It includes 1209 numbered entries; a few are annotated. While these are generally well chosen, this section apparently received the least attention in the course of preparing this edition. A quick comparison with the fourth edition turned up only one title replaced by a later work. In a number of cases Poucet and Hannick failed to note the latest edition or provide relevant information about original editions or translations. Some examples: no. 31, Scribes and Scholars, is now in its third edition (1991); no. 44 should cite the second edition (1986) of Bischoff's Paläographie; no. 177 cites the French translation but not Brown's English original; no. 590 makes no mention of the English original of Graves' Greek Myths; no. 917 provides only the French translation of Farrington (based on the first edition, 1936) and neglects to cite the second English edition (1969). Curious omissions also occur, such as the inexplicable absence of L. R. Palmer's Latin Language and Greek Language. These are minor blemishes in an otherwise excellent selection, but need to be addressed in future editions.

This is clearly the best guide for librarians, graduate students in classics, and others seeking an orientation to the literature of the whole field. It is both more up-to-date and more complete than its English and German competitors: Halton and O'Leary, Classical Scholarship (1986) and Gullath and Heidtmann, Wie finde ich altertumswissenschaftliche Literatur (1992). Those concerned primarily with reference works will find the reviewer's Classical Studies (1996; see RREO 98-1/2-150, above) to be more extensive and detailed than Poucet and Hannick in this regard. Ironically the chief direct competitor to Poucet and Hannick is their own web-based Bibliotheca Classica Selecta which includes nearly everything found in the printed work and a good deal more. Not only does it include works too recent to have found their way into the printed version, it also has better retrospective coverage: many older works dropped from the fifth edition still appear in BCS. There are also direct links to many resources available on the Web. Those who already have the third or fourth edition may well prefer to rely on BCS to update it, especially as so many of the changes in the fifth edition relate to Internet resources.

Fred W. Jenkins, University of Dayton


Einleitung in die griechische Philologie [Introduction to Greek Philology]. Ed. Heinz-Günther Nesselrath. Stuttgart; Leipzig: Teubner, 1997. xvi, 773 p. ill. 25 cm.(Einleitung in die Altertumswissenschaft) ISBN 3-519-07435-4: DM 76.00

The previous edition (1910-1912) of the three-volume Einleitung in die Altertumswissenschaft attempted to bring classical studies together as a whole. The new edition, on the other hand, looks at Greek and Latin philology as separate disciplines.

With contributions from 26 leading scholars, this guide, the second part of the revised Einleitung in die Altertumswissenschaft provides a tool for students and teachers of Greek philology, history, and archaeology. It provides an excellent entry point into these fields, especially in areas that might be considered a bit on the margins, such as papyrology, epigraphy, history of science, etc. Texts are concise and informative, and the selective bibliographies are current. The work is indexed by name and subject. Like the earlier edition, this comprehensive and reliable handbook will certainly establish itself soon as a standard work. [kd/mj]


Einleitung in die lateinische Philologie [Introduction to Latin Philology]. Ed. Fritz Graf. Stuttgart; Leipzig: Teubner, 1997. x, 725 p. ill. 25 cm. (Einleitung in die Altertumswissenschaft) ISBN 3-519-07434-6: DM 69.00

The scope expansion of this new edition of Einleitung in die Altertumswissenschaft vis-à-vis its famous, 3-volume predecessor work (ed. Alfred Gercke and Eduard Norden, 1910) is evident in the volume's coverage of topics such as the history of the discipline, the thorough treatment of the history of texts, the length of the chapter on the history of the Latin language, and the inclusion of middle and new Latin tests. At the same time, connections to related disciplines (Roman history, private law, religion, etc.) are now stronger than ever. The bibliographical references follow the long-established standards in classical studies--rather than the nitpicking rules of librarians!--and are up-to-date as of 1997. The quality of this guide demonstrates the vigor of classical philology today. As a compendium, it will be used by both beginners and seasoned scholars in conjunction with other overviews and handbooks. [hak/mj]


Japan-Bibliografie. Reihe A, Monografien, Zeitschriften, Karten: Verzeichnis deutschsprachiger japanbezogener Veröffentlichungen = Bibliography of Japan [Series A, Monographs, Journals, Maps: Index of Publications on Japan in German]. Wolfgang Hadamitzky and Marianne Rudat-Kocks. München [et al.]: Saur. 25 cm. ISBN 3-598-22145-2

Vol. 3

Part 2. 1971-1985. 1997. xiv, 434 p. ISBN 3-598-22156-8: DM 248.00

The publication of Bibliography of Japan is still dragging on. With this volume, Series A (monographs) is now complete. At the current pace, Series B (articles and essays) will not be finished before 2006, at which point this work will be thoroughly retrospective in character. [sh/mj]


Das neue Historische Lexikon der Schweiz (HLS) [The New Historical Encyclopedia of Switzerland]

Switzerland has a lengthy tradition of encyclopedia-making dating back to the seventeenth century. However, the most recent large-scale national lexicographical encyclopedia project was published 75 years ago (1921 through 1934). It consisted of the Historisch-biographisches Lexikon der Schweiz and the Dictionnaire historique et biographique de la Suisse--identical German and French editions, each in seven volumes. This work was characterized by rich content, the high quality of most entries, and the simplicity of the language. It did have problems, however. The selection of entries was often haphazard, coverage of certain subject areas was uneven and the list of entries not always coherent. The lack of strong central editorial control meant that the quality of the text depended almost entirely on the authors and resulted in numerous weak articles. This said, it was a prodigious achievement: a (belated) synthesis of nineteenth-century Swiss historiography which still stands as the standard reference source for Swiss history.

In 1982, the Swiss Academy of Social Sciences and Humanities (SAGW) undertook a feasibility study for a new historical encyclopedia, and a formal proposal for a new Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz (HLS) was made to the Swiss government in 1987. It was accepted and fully funded that same year. The plan is for a 12-volume work (720 pages per volume) in three editions: German, French, and Italian. So as not to completely overlook the fourth Swiss language, a single-volume edition in Rhaeto-Romanic (Lexicon istoric da la Rumantschia) is also planned.

The HLS will contain four categories of entries in a single integrated sequence: biographical entries (24,000); place-name entries (5,300); subject entries (3,000); and family entries (2,500). Twenty percent of the space is reserved for illustrations. The core editorial staff of 20 is located in Bern, and roughly 2,000 authors are under contract to produce over 35,000 entries. About 40 translators will be used to produce the three different language editions.

As of the beginning of 1998, 46% of the entries had been written. The first two volumes (covering "A" through "Chz") are virtually complete. The editorial revision process has proven to be the bottleneck: of the roughly 106,000 entries (35,300, each in 3 languages), only 13% have been edited. Originally the editors planned to issue the first volume of each edition in 1998 (the 150th anniversary of the Swiss Confederation). Delays have pushed back the date to 2000/2001. In the meantime access to a database of the publication-ready entries is being planned on a cost-recovery basis. [mj/bw]

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