A6 -- Biographies by Profession and Specialty

Frauen in den Kulturwissenschaften: von Lou Andreas-Salomé bis Hannah Arendt [Women in Cultural Scholarship: From Lou Andreas-Salomé to Hannah Arendt]. Ed. Barbara Hahn. München: Beck, 1994. 363 p. ill. 18 cm. (Beck’sche Reihe, 1043). ISBN3-406-37433-6: EUR 14.50 [99-B09-084]

This bio-bibliography discusses 16 German women who by 1933 had written at least two important research papers or other works in the areas of history, literary theory, philosophy, art history, or political or social sciences. The essays are arranged chronologically by the person’s date of birth. The book includes both well- and lesser-known figures. The quality of the articles varies. Each contains a biography, a bibliography of the author’s works, and a thorough discussion of the author’s research. The volume is especially valuable for its bibliography of sources that might serve as a starting point for the serious researcher. As with most other reference books of this type, there is a question about how and why the women included in this work were selected. [bk/ba]

Philosophinnen-Lexikon [Dictionary of Women Philosophers]. Ed. Ursula I. Meyer and Heidemarie Bennent-Vahle. Leipzig: Reclam, 1997. 637 p. 19 cm. (Reclam-Bibliothek, 1584). ISBN 3-379-01584-9: EUR 15.10 [99-B09-085]

Revised and enlarged from the 1994 edition (see RREO 1994, section BA-94-2, nr. 94-2-257), this biographical dictionary introduces 200 women philosophers, spanning the history of western and eastern philosophy, from Pythagoreans in antiquity to medieval mystics to today’s feminists. For the purposes of this book, philosophy is broadly defined, and philosophical ideas are not only reflected in philosophical texts, but also in literary and political writings and in correspondence. The brief articles, composed mostly by women authors, include a biographical sketch as well as an overview of the major philosophical ideas of the person introduced. The essays are written for the generalist and hold the reader’s interest. [gd/ba]

Philosophinnen [Women Philosophers]. Ed. Marit Rullmann. 2 vols. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Verlag, 1998. 308, 365 p. ill. 18 cm. (Suhrkamp-Taschenbuch, 2877, 2878). ISBN 3-518-06516-5 (set): EUR 18 [99-B09-087]

The two volumes introduce about 75 women philosophers from all eras of history. Biographies are by broad time period. The articles, most of them written by Marit Rullmann, are longer than the essays in Philosophinnen-Lexikon (see RREA 9:236). The set also includes women who were not primarily philosophers, but were, for example, doctors or physicists. Biographies of many of the women covered in this set can also be found in other reference works. The new paperback edition is not much revised or expanded as compared to the original edition. It includes only one new article (with portrait) on Donna Haraway. [sh/ba]

Personenlexikon Religion und Theologie [Biographical Dictionary for Religion and Theology]. Ed. Martin Greschat. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1998. viii, 439 p. 19 cm. (UTB für Wissenschaft; UNI Taschenbucher, 2063). ISBN 3-8252-2063-X (UTB); ISBN 3-525-03297-8 (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht): EUR 19.90 [99-B09-087a]

This title is basically a reprint of the biographical index (vol. 5) of the Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon [Dictionary of the Protestant Church] (Göttingen, 1985–1997). It covers persons of all religions, persona from the bible, theologians, and others, even those who had only an indirect relationship with the church and religion. Living individuals born in 1930 or earlier are also included. For the most part, the entries are very brief. The book is more an annotated list of names than a biographical dictionary. It is disappointing that this renowned publisher would repackage an existing index and market it as a dictionary. [sh/ba]

Theologen unserer Zeit [Theologians of Our Times]. Ed. Stephan Pauly and Karl Lehmann. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1997. 153 p. 27 cm. ISBN 3-17-015046-

Contrary to what the title might suggest, this book is narrow in focus. It contains very readable and informative essays on 11 Catholic theologians of this century. The emphasis is on persons from central Europe; only two theologians from non-German-speaking countries are included. The book is based on radio programs broadcast by the Bayerischer Rundfunk. The selection introduces the lives, works, ideas, and theories of the well-known Catholic theologians Hans Urs von Balthasar, Eugen Biser, Odo Casel, Heinrich Fries, Romano Guardini, Gustavo Guitérrez, Bernard Häring, Henri de Lubac, Oswald von Nell-Breuning, Karl Rahner, and Anton Vögtle. These portraits serve as an excellent introduction to the recent history of Catholic theology. [ar/ba]

Lexikon der Weltliteratur [Dictionary of World Literature]. Ed. Gero von Wilpert. 3d rev. ed. 4 vols. München: Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, 1997. xii, 1,677, xviii, 1,569 p. 22 cm. ISBN 3-423-59050-5: DM 128 [Ed. note: 4th “completely rev.” ed. 2004, ISBN 3-520-83804-4; EUR 198] [99-B09-089] This four-volume set carries an attractive price and combines what had originally been two dictionaries—authors and works—into one. It is an unrevised reprint of the third edition published in one volume each respectively in 1988 and 1993 and no longer available (see RREO 1994, section BD-94-3/4, nr. 94-3/4-433).

The 1988–1993 third edition covers approximately 11,000 authors (sampling indicates closer to 10,500), along with some 4,800 major works of the world’s literature by around 1,700 authors. The greatest shortcoming of this work is its naturally inevitable obsolescence, due not so much to the lack of coverage of new authors achieving prominence in the past decade as to the lack of secondary literature from the past ten years. In this regard the Literatur-Brockhaus, fundamentally revised and expanded in 1995, displays the advantages of having both the biographical and major-works components of Wilpert, plus material updated to 1995. The Brockhaus still ranks second behind the paperback edition of Kindlers neues Literaturlexikon (KNL) (München, 1996). Libraries that own the KNL will gain no advantage by purchasing the Wilpert set. Owning both the Brockhaus and the KNL serves one better yet. For libraries holding a previous edition, this reprint is basically of no interest. [sh/ga]

L’Europe des humanistes (XIVe–XVIIe siècles) [The Europe of the Humanists: 14th–17th Centuries]. Ed. J-F. Maillard, J. Kecskeméti, and M. Portalier. Paris: CNRS Editions; Turnhout: Brepols, 1995. 543 p. 25 cm. (Documents, études et repertoires/Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes, 65). ISBN: 2-271-05376-5 (CNRS): EUR 110; ISBN: 2-503-50435-3 (Brepols): EUR 108.90 [99-B09-091]

The title of this bio-bibliography promises more than the contents deliver. Th e work indeed lists humanists of the 14th to the beginning of the 17th centuries, that is, from Petrarch up to the generation born before 1600, but it is in no way a general index, as it includes only those who helped to transmit—i.e., edited, translated, or commented on—ancient, medieval, and humanistic texts (up to 1500).

There are 2,350 humanists in the name index, but no set of rules for the form of entry. Thus Italian humanists are usually listed under their Italian names, German humanists under their Latinized names. If one does not find a particular name, the “Register of Variant Forms of Names” (p. 507–530) may be of further help. The articles themselves are extremely brief: (1) author’s name, and place and year of birth and death; (2) profession or activity, with sphere of influence; (3) sources of general information, primarily the relevant national bibliography, sometimes with additional scholarly sources; and (4) authors of the texts that were transmitted, the latter being comprised of (a) ancient authors, (b) biblical authors, (c) church fathers, and (d) authors from the 7th to the 15th centuries. These authors are listed by name only, and not with the titles of any works, with a citation to at least one source. The repertory is restricted to texts that appeared in print, and humanists whose texts were never published are not covered. Unpublished manuscripts of those covered by the work are at best treated as supplements. Considering the breadth of the field to be cultivated, this limitation diminishes not insignificantly the value of this compilation and closes off many lesser-known or unknown sources of pre-14th-century texts.

Some two-thirds of the humanists cited come from the Romance countries, while the remaining third is devoted to the rest of Europe, dominated by the German-speaking countries and the Netherlands. Hungarian humanists also receive numerous entries. For the German-speaking countries, a more thorough utilization of the Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachbereich erschienenen Drucke des XVI. Jahrhunderts: VD 16 [Index of 16th-Century Publications from the German-Language Areas] (Stuttgart, 1983– ) would have produced a better representation.

Closing the work is an index of texts with references to the authors as well as to variant name forms, and a bibliography arranged by holding institution. [sh/ga]

Metzler-Autorinnen-Lexikon [Metzler’s Dictionary of Women Authors]. Ed. Ute Hechtfischer. Stuttgart; Weimar: Metzler, 1998. 617 p. ill. 24 cm. ISBN 3-476-01550-5: EUR 44.90 [99-B09-095]

Every year the renowned Metzler publishing house includes one or two putatively timely “quick shots” in its new program. This latest example, an addition to the many author dictionaries already in print, claims rather sweepingly to cover in some 500 pages women authors “from mysticism to the post-modernist experiment, from poetesses laureate to imprisoned regime opponents, from Korea to Canada, Scandinavia to Peru.”

Knowing that they must be selective, the editors try to justify their choices: “The authors selected for inclusion represent many others—from a country, an era, a literary group, or a specific style” (p. v–vi). About 400 authors are each given one to two pages of essay, three to four lines of bibliography, and a small passport-sized photo. The editors note that they have included authors “who are relevant to literary studies but also whom the reader frequently bumps into in the book trade” to explain the strong representation of authors from the present and the preponderance of women writers from the German-speaking countries and Europe. There is one other stated selection criterion: authors “who have written exclusively non-fiction, children’s books, or mysteries are included only in exceptional cases,” these being, for example, Enid Mary Blyton and Agatha Christie.

Obviously the authors should represent all countries and periods, and, to be sure, many major figures are included. In vain, however, does one search for Elisa von der Recke, Mathilde Franziska Anneke, Johanna Spyri (the creator of the “Heidi” books was also a correspondent of many years with the great Swiss writer Conrad Ferdinand Meyer), Amalie Struve (perhaps the most interesting political writer of the 1848 movement), Malwida von Meysenbug, Marie Herzfeld, or Hannah Arendt. It would also have been appropriate to include Marianne von Willemer, whose poems Goethe quietly and without attribution folded into his Westöstlicher Divan. Likewise, Vittoria Colonna, the friend of and poetic equal of Michelangelo, is missing from these pages.

In the allegedly well-represented ranks of contemporary literature one misses such names as Ulla Berkéwicz, Elisabeth Borchers, Elfriede Czurda, Doris Dörrie, Lilian Faschinger, Anna Mitgutsch, Nicole Müller, Ingrid Noll, Roswitha Quadflieg, Evelyn Schlag, and Dorothea Zeeman. Italian women authors left out include Ippolita Avalli, Carmin Covito, Mariateresa Di Lascia, Orianna Fallaci, Rosetta Loy, Ada Negri, and Lalla Romano.

The factual content of the essays naturally varies considerably. The article on Sappho contains only vague information that in no way represents the wealth of current research on this poet of antiquity. Information on many other authors—e.g., Ilse Eichinger, Patricia Highsmith, Ricarda Huch—is similarly incomplete, and the currency of the articles also varies greatly. For example, the most recent writings on Sylvia Plath’s “literary marriage” with Ted Hughes are not included.

Alongside the weak essays one naturally also finds successful ones—how could a collection be otherwise? Take for example those on Sibilla Aleramo, Dacia Maraini, or Christine de Pizan, Hildegard von Bingen (alas no reference to Michaela Diers’ excellent 1998 monograph in the dtv-portrait series), Hrotsvit von Gandersheim, Marie Luise Kaschnitz, and Rahel Varnhagen (fortunately with bibliographical reference to her recently published correspondence with Pauline Wiesel).

All in all, however, this is a work that in the name of feminist literary studies objectionably diminishes the contribution of women authors to literature. It is as unnecessary for libraries as it is for the private collection. Those who would take exception to publications such as this can find comfort in two things: any sales success of the work may enable the publisher to finance others that actually serve knowledge and the public; and with this work as an example, bona fide philologists at academic institutions can plausibly demonstrate why they arm themselves with skepticism when it comes to any printed publication, especially those that have been published in haste. Scholars can undoubtedly direct students to other resources where they can find more solid information about women authors. [hak/ga]

Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon: die bildenden Künstler aller Zeiten und Völker [General Encyclopedia of Visual Artists from All Times and Peoples]. Vols. 1– 4 are reprints of vols.1–3 of the first edition (Leipzig: E.A. Seemannn-Verlag, 1983–1990). München; Leipzig: Saur, 1992– . 25 cm. ISBN 3-598-22740-X (set) [Ed. note: For a brief review of the 1992 reprints of both sections of Hans Vollmer’s Allgemeines Lexikon, see IFB 93-3/4-188 and 189.] [99-B09-096]

Vol. 8. BayonneBenech. 1994. lix, 640 p. ISBN 3-598-22748-5: EUR 228
Vol. 9. BeneckeBerrettini. 1994. lix, 640 p. ISBN 3-598-22749-3: EUR 228
Vol. 10. BerrettiniBikkers. 1995. lii, 640 p. ISBN 3-598-22750-7: EUR 228
Vol. 11. BiklarBobrov. 1995. xiv, 680 p. ISBN 3-598-22751-5: EUR 228
Vol. 12. BobrovBordacev. 1996. xiv, 680 p. ISBN 3-598-22752-3: EUR 228
Vol. 13. BordaligoBraun. 1996. xiv, 690 p. ISBN 3-598-22753-1: EUR 228
Vol. 14. BraunBuckett. 1996. xxix, 696 p. ISBN 3-598-22754-X: EUR 228
Vol. 15. BuckiCampagnari. 1997. xv, 695 p. ISBN 3-598-22755-8: EUR 228
Vol. 16. CampagneCartellier. 1997. li, 636 p. ISBN 3-598-22756-6: EUR 228
Vol. 17. CarterCesaretti. 1997. xiv, 637 p. ISBN 3-598-22757-4: EUR 228
Vol. 18. CesariChoupay. 1998. xiv, 642 p. ISBN 3-598-22758-2: EUR 228
Vol. 19. ChouppeClovio. 1998. lii, 604 p. ISBN 3-598-22759-0: EUR 228
Vol. 20. Clow Contel. 1998. lii, 604 p. ISBN 3-598-22760-4: EUR 228

Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker founded and, along with Frederick Willis and Hans Vollmer, edited the 37-volume Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart (Leipzig, 1907–1950). Vollmer subsequently edited the six-volume Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler des 20. Jahrhunderts (Leipzig, 1953–1962) as a continuation of the Thieme/Becker work. In 1992, the Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag came out with a paperback reprint, in 37 volumes, of the Thieme-Becker dictionary and Vollmer’s supplement, which are now out of print.

A revised edition of the Thieme/Becker/Vollmer work, under the title of Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon (AKL), was begun in Leipzig during the GDR period. Volumes 1–3 (1983–1990) appeared before the reunification of East and West Germany in a format and scope that reflected the GDR shortage-economy criteria. After reunification, the K.G. Saur-Verlag considerably enriched its already established suite of biographical reference works when it secured the publishing rights to this jewel of the Seemann-Verlag.

In 1992, Saur reprinted the first three volumes in four qualitatively more demanding and enduring volumes (acid-free paper in linen covers with leather spines), and the new Saur series commenced with volumes 5 and 6 in 1992, followed by volume 7 in 1993 (see IFB 93-3/4-190 for a review of the first five volumes). Saur-Verlag’s plan calls for 100 volumes in all, with two to three volumes to appear each year; it is unlikely that this pace can be increased. The downsizing of personnel and the outsourcing of more and more contributions may bring advantages in productivity, but at a possible cost in reliability of information, as one can discern in comparing some articles in this version with those in the original Thieme/Becker edition, which thus can not be considered superseded. The current publishing schedule also means that the reader must wait decades for the set to be completed. [Ed. note: the AKL to date (2004) comprises 43 volumes.]

The entire text to date exists in digital form, as will further volumes. It would be desirable if the full text of the AKL could be made available in electronic form. Th e publisher could then easily produce timely updates to text already included and, even more important, articles in the latter parts of the alphabet already completed could be published expeditiously, without having to wait for tardy authors to finish their contributions. At least the first part of this suggestion has been realized with the publication of the third edition of the Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon-Internationale Künstlerdatenbank (AKL-IKD) (see RREA 9:246). [sh/ga]

Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon: die bildenden Künstler aller Zeiten und Völker [General Encyclopedia of Visual Artists from All Times and Peoples]. München; Leipzig: Saur. 25 cm. ISBN 3-598-22750-X [99-B09-097]

Indexes to vols. 1–10:
Pt. 1. Länder [Countries]. 1995. vii, 682 p. ISBN 3-598-22801-5: EUR 228
Pt. 2. Künstlerische Berufe [Artistic Professions]. 1995. x, 675 p. ISBN 3-598-22802-3: EUR 228
Indexes to vols. 11–20:
Pt. 1. Länder [Countries]. 1998. 625 p. ISBN 3-598-22803-1: EUR 228
Pt. 2.Künstlerische Berufe [Artistic Professions]. 1998. ix, 623 p. ISBN 3-598-22804-X: EUR 228

As becomes clear from these indexes to the Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon (AKL) (see RREA 9:243), the first ten volumes of that work cover 61,060 artists; comparing this multiple with the ca. 213,302 entries in the entire Thieme-Becker/Vollmer gives an indication of the massive increase in coverage offered by the new AKL. Both parts of each AKL index volume present the same information, albeit in a different order. The first part has 132 country names, under which are listed artistic specializations and then the names of the artists, chronologically. The second part is arranged by artistic specialization, under which are the countries and then the artists.

Artists’ specialties that appear at the beginning of the articles in the text do not always appear in the index, nor do specialties that are clear from the context of the article, but not clearly stated. The lack of a controlled vocabulary makes for confusion when looking for specialties in the index—there are adjacent terms (falling together alphabetically) that are similar and that could have been combined, and there are similar terms that are not adjacent which one finds only by accident. A list of terms used for artists’ specialties would have been useful, as would have been a logical grouping of them in the index itself.

It is legitimate for publishers to wish to recoup the investment they make digitizing information, and as long as libraries are willing to buy the resulting products, even if flawed like this one, the publishers can scarcely be faulted. [sh/mrh]

Thieme-Becker/Vollmer-Gesamtregister: Register zum Allgemeinen Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart und zum Allgemeinen Lexikon der bildenden Künstler des XX. Jahrhunderts [Thieme-Becker/Vollmer Cumulative Index to the General Encyclopedia of Visual Artists from Antiquity to the Present and the General Encyclopedia of Visual Artists of the 20th Century]. 2 parts, in 6 vols. München; Leipzig: Saur; Leipzig: Seemann. 2,284 p. 25 cm. ISBN 3-598-23640-9 (set): EUR 996 [99-B09-098]

The biographical data from Thieme-Becker/Vollmer, initially digitized for the editors of the AKL and used already in the second edition of the Internationale Künstlerdatenbank [International Artists Database] (see RREA 9:246), have now been expanded for the printed version of an index to the Thieme-Becker/Vollmer encyclopedia. Included are 148,180 persons who are given their own articles in Thieme-Becker, along with 15,082 names “hidden” within articles, and 50,040 persons from Vollmer, making 213,302 altogether. The same reservations about the printed indexes of the AKL can be applied to these as well.

As the same information, as well as the full text of the AKL, is included in the Allgemeines Kunstlerlexikon/Internationale Künstlerdatenbank, it only makes sense to buy the CD-ROM (see below), which costs less than the printed index. [sh/mrh]

Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon, Internationale Künstlerdatenbank = World Biographical Dictionary of Artists. 6th CD-ROM ed. München: Saur, 1998. 1 CD-ROM + Manual. ISBN 3-598-40387-9: DM 2,400, DM 796 (for purchasers of the 5th ed.), DM 498 (for purchasers of the print edition of the Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon). [Ed. note: 18th ed. 2004, ISBN 3-598-40814-5: EUR 980, EUR 448 (for subscribers to previous editions); online version, ISBN 3-598-41800-0: EUR 980, EUR 680 (for purchasers of the print or CD-ROM ed.)] [99-B09-099]

Included on this CD-ROM are the indexes from Thieme/Becker and Vollmer and the full text of the first 18 volumes of the AKL. In addition, there are 111,500 unedited and unpublished entries from the AKL’s internal database, left from the initial collection of material for the encyclopedia. There are extensive search options, some new in this edition of the CD-ROM. Although only the artistic specialties listed at the head of the articles are indexed, one can search in the full text of the AKL to find others. There is no name authority, although references to an artist’s data in Th ieme/Becker and the AKL are linked. There is also no standardized list of artists’ specialties. Despite extensive online help, one misses a user’s handbook. The CDROM will appear semi-annually from now on, and will include two volumes of the AKL each time. [sh/mrh]

Jüdische Frauen in der bildenden Kunst: ein biographisches Verzeichnis [Jewish Women in the Fine Arts: A Biographical Index]. Hedwig Brenner; ed. Erhard Roy Wiehn. Konstanz: Hartung-Gorre, 1998. 236, 8 p. ill. 21 cm. ISBN 3-89649-199-7: EURO 20.35 [99-B09-104]

The author, a psychotherapist in her eighties, must have produced this work as a result of avocational rather than professional interest. Most of the 199 artists represented here are unknown; widely recognized names are the exception. The birth and, when appropriate, death dates are not always given, and the biographies cite no sources, although there are five pages of selected bibliography at the end. This is a useful first book in a little-known area; presumably the subject will attract a more professional treatment soon. [sh/mrh]

Encyclopedia of Film Directors in the United States of America and Europe. Ed. Alfred Krautz in cooperation with Hille and Joris Krautz. München: Saur. 31 cm. [99-B09-108]

Vol. 2. Crime Films to 1995. 1997. 314 p. ISBN 3-598-21502-9: DM 368

Each volume of this encyclopedia is devoted to a specific genre. This is a problematic arrangement, not just because a film’s genre can be subject to debate (for example, is Ladykillers a comedy or crime film?), but because a director can work with multiple genres, necessitating searching in all the volumes for relevant information. Although there is a cumulative index in the final volume, the arrangement is still cumbersome. This expensive work owes its existence to the passion of its editors, the availability of a computer, and the laxity of the publisher with regard to quality. [sh/mrh]

Who’s Who in International Affairs: A Biographical A–Z of Key Personalities. 2d ed. London: Europa Publications, 1997. xvi, 543 p. 29 cm. ISBN 1-85743-045-X: £225 [(Ed. note: 2d ed., 2003, ISBN 1-85743-156-1: $445]) [99-B09-138]

Seven years have passed since the first edition of this title appeared in 1990, an unreasonably long time for a work covering a field characterized by strong fluctuations in personnel. The number of entries (ca. 7,000) and the selection criteria have remained the same: key personalities in international politics, diplomacy, economics, the sciences, and the cultural scene, in so far as they are relevant to international relations. Even considering the fact that the most important representatives of the largest international organizations are included by virtue of their offices, the remaining selection criteria are more than vague. The completeness of the individual biographical entries varies considerably, a problem of the earlier edition as well. The length of the articles seems to be determined mainly by the number of positions held by the persons cited, and persons from more “exotic” countries receive less description than those from more prominent countries, the only information supplied sometimes being name, title, and address. Indexes are by organizations, nations, and nationalities. As the more important of the persons included also appear in general international short-biographical works, such as The International Who’s Who from the same publisher (see IFB 99-B09-035) and Who’s Who in the World (see IFB 99-B09-036), not to mention more specialized publications such as Who’s Who in International Organizations (see IFB 99-B09-070), Profiles of Worldwide Government Leaders (see IFB 99-B09-137), and Who’s Who in European Politics (see IFB 99-B09-283), and also as it is unclear whether Europa Publications will remain current in publishing future editions of Who’s Who in International Affairs, the publication need not be considered a reference work of the highest rank. [sh/tk]

Who’s Who in Rock Art: A World Directory of Specialists, Scholars, and Technicians in Rock Art. Ed. Ariela Fradkin Anati for the Centro Camuno di Studi Preistorici and the International Committee on Rock Art. 2d ed. Capo di Ponte: Edizioni del Centro, 1996. 192 p. 24 cm. ISBN 88-86621-08-6: EUR 20 (Edizioni del Centro Camuno di Studi Preistorici, I-25044 Capo di Ponte Valcamonica, fax [39 364] 42572, e-mail: ccsp@globalnet.it) [99-B09-140]

A comparison between the first edition (1985) and the second edition (1996) of this subject bio-bibliography reveals a large increase in the number of specialists in the field of prehistoric rock art. Th e first edition listed 289 persons, quite a few of whom, having since died, are not included among the 310 names covered by the second edition. Although amateur archaeologists are still covered in good number, the increasing professionalization of the field is noticeable, as is the greater emphasis placed on technological and conservation issues and on a worldwide focus. Whereas the first edition stressed Europe (mainly Spain, France, and Italy), the second tends to emphasize the USA, France, and Australia. Researchers in countries with sufficient objects of study seem inclined to concentrate their attention on their respective countries; those elsewhere concentrate on objects in various world areas. For instance, the Austrian specialists represented here devote their chief attention to rock formations in Asia. This work lists a number of researchers’ publications, so that it serves as a bibliography as well as a biographical directory. Nonetheless the editor should take more care to include only citations to truly relevant works, and not those that have nothing to do with rock art. Subsequent editions are being planned to appear at shorter time intervals. [sh/tk]

Who Was Who in Egyptology. A Biographical Index of Egyptologists; of Travelers, Explorers, and Excavators in Egypt; of Collectors of and Dealers in Egyptian Antiquities; of Consuls, Officials, Authors, Benefactors, and Others Whose Names Occur in the Literature of Egyptology, from the Year 1500 to the Present Day, but Excluding Persons Now Living. Founded by Warren R. Dawson and Eric P. Uphill; ed. M. L. Bierbrier. 3d rev. ed. London: Egypt Exploration Society, 1995. xiv, 458 p. ill. 22 cm. ISBN 0-85698-125-7: £50 (Egypt Exploration Society, 3 Doughty Mews, London WC1N 2PG, England) [99-B09-141]

The three editions of this standard biographical work on the history of Egyptology have appeared at intervals of about 20 years. If one compares their content, one can easily measure the increase apparent in this most recent edition, accounted for not only by the inclusion of additional biographies, but also by an expansion of many older articles. Some persons are missing, for example C.W. Ceram (1915–1992), who is not to be found even under his real name Kurt W. Marek, although his 1949 work Götter, Gräber und Gelehrte [Gods, Graves, and Scholars] contributed much to the popularization of archaeology in general and of Egyptian archaeology in particular. Among the “benefactors” whom the reviewer misses is the Berlin merchant James Simon, who financed the excavations of the German-Orient-Society in Amarna. As owner of the excavation license he was due the profits from the diggings, which included the bust of Nefertiti, later donated to the Berlin museums together with other finds. Neither Simon nor Nefertiti is mentioned in the article on the archaeologist Ludig Borchart, the excavator of Amarna.

The approximately 1,500 rather short articles, some with black-and-white portraits, are limited to the facts of the individuals’ vitae and their careers, and highlight their more important monographic publications. References to secondary literature are limited mainly to obituaries found in professional periodicals and to articles in other biographical reference works. As the text of the work is now available in digitized format, one can hope that less time will elapse before the appearance of the next edition. [sh/tk]

Scientists since 1660: A Bibliography of Biographies. Leslie Howsam. Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate, 1997. vii, 149 p. 24 cm. ISBN 1-85928-035-8: £45 [99-B09-144]

The compiler describes his bibliography as “a work of reference and one of scholarship.” The former is generally accurate; the latter is less apparent. Based on material in the Dictionary of Scientific Biography and on supplemental research in library catalogs, 1,106 exclusively English-language biographies and autobiographies have been listed for 565 scientists and technologists whose achievements fall in the period since 1660. Physicians are not included; for them the reader is referred to the Bibliography of Medical and Biomedical Biography (Aldershot, Hants)—although, inexplicably, to the 1989 edition instead of to the second edition published in 1994 (see IFB 99-B09-165). Entries are arranged alphabetically and include birth and death years, nationality, and field of research. The biographical publications are listed chronologically, with adequate bibliographical information and short annotations. There are indexes of the scientists by field, publishers, and the series to which the biographical publications belong. This work is of limited use because of its restriction to mostly English-language titles. Most of them, and additional non-English titles, could probably be found easily in the catalog of the British Library. One hopes that this limitation will disappear in a second edition, analogous to the bibliography on medical scientists cited above. [sh/tk]

Collins Biographical Dictionary of Scientists. Ed. Trevor Williams. Glasgow: Harper Collins, 1994. xviii, 602 p. 24 cm. ISBN: 0-00-470109-7: £25 [99-B09-149]

This volume is the fourth edition of the Biographical Dictionary of Scientists, which appeared first in 1969, with a third edition in 1982. The foreword explains changes from the earlier editions. As in the Cambridge Dictionary of Scientists (Cambridge; New York, 1996), about 1,300 brief biographical articles on deceased and—new in this fourth edition—also living contemporaries are offered.

In addition to name, birth and death dates, occupation, nationality, field of research, and main achievements, the articles stress the scholarly vita of the individuals, beginning with their university education through the various positions they have occupied, noting their research accomplishments, chief publications, and honors and prizes received. References to secondary literature about the subjects indicate whether these works contain portraits of them, which is useful, as this work contains no illustrations. The six best outside (mostly English-language) biographical sources in the eyes of the editor are quoted in the “Notes on References” section which precedes the main body of the work. In this fourth edition, a listing of Nobel Prize winners in the natural sciences up to 1993 is presented, arranged chronologically by subject. A special feature is the listing of all persons by their birth and death year up to 1993. Names in the appendix for which no articles have been provided are so indicated. The oldest individual included is Thales von Milet; the youngest is the 1986 Physics Nobel Prize recipient Gerd Karl Binnig, born in 1947, for whom an article does not appear in the main body of the work. Unfortunately, the foreword does not indicate the selection criteria for the persons listed; as is apparent from the Binnig example, not all Nobel Prize winners have been included with biographies. The main advantage of this short-biographical lexicon lies in its inclusion of references to secondary literature.

The concept of the biographies, the indication of each article’s contributor, and above all the citations to secondary literature make this work useful not only for students and the interested layperson. [sh/tk]

Fachlexikon abc Forscher und Erfinder [Professions Lexicon ABC: Researchers and Inventors]. Ed. Hans-Ludwig Wußing. Thun; Frankfurt am Main: Deutsch, 1992. 672 p. ill. 25 cm. ISBN 3-8171-1258-0: DM 58 [99-B09-151]

The Fachlexikon abc Forscher und Erfinder has a relatively narrow focus, listing over 800 persons from the physical sciences, technology, and medicine. The informative articles include individual’s name, field, birth and death dates and places, main accomplishments, academic and professional career, and important scholarly achievements, honors, and distinctions. References to selected primary texts and to secondary sources providing further information on the persons cited follow each of the articles, all of which are signed. An attempt was made to provide a portrait of each scientist. A chronological listing of Nobel Prize recipients (1901–1990) is included, but a sample of the entries reveals that not all of these recipients are honored by articles in the main body of the work. Some selection criteria are noted by the editor, but there is no indication whether living as well as deceased persons are covered; most appear to be deceased. The selection of names for inclusion was influenced by the fact that the initial stages of work on this lexicon were begun in the former German Democratic Republic, before German reunification. In any case, the preponderance of East European and Russian scientists is striking. Because of the comprehensiveness of the articles, which offer personal information in addition to covering scientific achievements and useful references to other literature, this work is to be recommended. [sah/tk]

Lexikon der Naturwissenschaftlerinnen und naturkundigen Frauen Europas: von der Antike vis zum 20. Jahrhundert [Dictionary of Women in the Natural Sciences and Nature-Related Activities, from Antiquity to the 20th Century]. Renate Strohmeier. Thun; Frankfurt am Main: Deutsch, 1998. 326 p. ill. 24 cm. ISBN 3-8171-1567-9: EUR 24.80 [99-B09-154]

This biographical dictionary of women in the sciences is interdisciplinary in nature, but limited in scope by time and place: the 500 “pioneers” listed in this work were all born before 1920, with the exception of physicians, who range from Antiquity to the 19th century. Famous translators, patrons, and writers have been included, but not archaeologists and psychologists. The short entries average about a column in length and provide birth and death dates, information about schooling and training, career path and special achievements, as well as important publications by the scientist and secondary literature about her. This dictionary serves as a welcome short history of European women in the sciences. [sh/erh]

Von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit: der verleugnete Anteil der Frauen an der Physik; Katalog zur Wanderausstellung [Denied Their Portion: Women in Physics from Antiquity to the Modern Era; Catalog of the Traveling Exhibition]. Ed. Cornelia Denz. 2d ed. Darmstadt: Technische Hochschule, Fachbereich Physik, 1994. ix, 96 p. ill. 21 cm. DM 8 (Frauen in der Technik, Karin Diegelmann, Schlossgartenstr. 45, D-64289 Darmstadt) [99-B09-157]

This little catalog was published as part of a traveling exhibition on women in physics from antiquity to the present. The 27 women included come not only from the field of physics but also from medicine and astronomy. As much of the material has been drawn from conventional secondary sources, the catalog functions primarily as a guide to the exhibit, not as an independent scholarly publication. [sh/erh]

The Person behind the Syndrome. Peter Beighton and Greta Beighton. Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer, 1997. 231 p. ill. 28 cm. ISBN 3-540-76044-X: EUR 45.50 [99-B09-168]

The Person behind the Syndrome includes over 100 entries on individuals who gave their name to a particular syndrome. The work is a continuation rather than a revision of its predecessor, The Man behind the Syndrome (Berlin: Springer, 1986). Together, the two works comprise about 370 entries. Part I of the Person behind the Syndrome contains 100 two-page entries, each with a portrait and a facing page of information and bibliography on the person and the disease. Part II contains 71 short entries on younger, often still professionally active persons for whom only scant information could be found. An appendix contains a list of people covered in the earlier work. [sh/erh]

Biographisches Lexikon zur Pflegegeschichte: Who was Who in Nursing History. Ed. Horst-Peter Wolff. Berlin; Wiesbaden: Ullstein Mosby, 1997. xvii, 234 p. ill. 22cm. ISBN 3-86126-628-8: EUR 27.95 [99-B09-169]

This “Who was Who” attempts to fill a gap in the history of medicine, with 400 short entries on nursing personnel from the Middle Ages to the present. Primary emphasis has been placed on the 19th and 20th centuries by the 36 contributors to the volume. The curious mix of personalities includes Francis of Assisi, Rudolf Steiner, and Vincent de Paul (listed here as Paulo, Vincent de). Even stranger is the inclusion of Friedrich Nietzsche, who served as an orderly in the Franco-Prussian War. As most of the contributors are German, the majority of names are from Germanspeaking areas. The few entries that discuss persons from the United States often do not include bibliographic references to standard reference works. In many cases, one has the impression that the authors are more interested in presenting documentation for a nurse’s canonization than in describing his or her professional activity. [sh/erh]

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